Holy Bible

New American Bible

About the New American Bible

The New American Bible sought to accomplish the existence of an accurate translation in modern English in response to the need of the Catholic Church in America today.

 

The New American Bible is a completely new translation throughout, drawn from the original and the oldest available texts of the sacred books. It aims to portrey as concisely as possible the thought and intent of the writers.


 


Old Testament

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1st Samuel

2nd Samuel

1st Kings

2nd Kings

1st Chronicles

2nd Chronicles

Ezra

Nehemiah

Tobit

Judith

Esther

1st Maccabees

2nd Maccabees

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Wisdom of Solomon

Sirach

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Baruch

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

New Testament

Matthew

Mark

Luke

John

Acts

Romans

1st Corinthians

2nd Corinthians

Galatians

Ephesians

Philippians

Colossians

1st Thessalonians

2nd Thessalonians

1st Timothy

2nd Timothy

Titus

Philemon

Hebrews

James

1st Peter

2nd Peter

1st John

2nd John

3rd John

Jude

Revelation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

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Genesis


1In the beginning, when God created the heavens and the earth,

2the earth was a formless wasteland, and darkness covered the abyss, while a mighty wind swept over the waters.

3Then God said, "Let there be light," and there was light.

4God saw how good the light was. God then separated the light from the darkness.

5God called the light "day," and the darkness he called "night." Thus evening came, and morning followed--the first day.

6Then God said, "Let there be a dome in the middle of the waters, to separate one body of water from the other." And so it happened:

7God made the dome, and it separated the water above the dome from the water below it.

8God called the dome "the sky." Evening came, and morning followed--the second day.

9Then God said, "Let the water under the sky be gathered into a single basin, so that the dry land may appear." And so it happened: the water under the sky was gathered into its basin, and the dry land appeared.

10God called the dry land "the earth," and the basin of the water he called "the sea." God saw how good it was.

11Then God said, "Let the earth bring forth vegetation: every kind of plant that bears seed and every kind of fruit tree on earth that bears fruit with its seed in it." And so it happened:

12the earth brought forth every kind of plant that bears seed and every kind of fruit tree on earth that bears fruit with its seed in it. God saw how good it was.

13Evening came, and morning followed--the third day.

14Then God said: "Let there be lights in the dome of the sky, to separate day from night. Let them mark the fixed times, the days and the years,

15and serve as luminaries in the dome of the sky, to shed light upon the earth." And so it happened:

16God made the two great lights, the greater one to govern the day, and the lesser one to govern the night; and he made the stars.

17God set them in the dome of the sky, to shed light upon the earth,

18to govern the day and the night, and to separate the light from the darkness. God saw how good it was.

19Evening came, and morning followed--the fourth day.

20Then God said, "Let the water teem with an abundance of living creatures, and on the earth let birds fly beneath the dome of the sky." And so it happened:

21God created the great sea monsters and all kinds of swimming creatures with which the water teems, and all kinds of winged birds. God saw how good it was,

22and God blessed them, saying, "Be fertile, multiply, and fill the water of the seas; and let the birds multiply on the earth."

23Evening came, and morning followed--the fifth day.

24Then God said, "Let the earth bring forth all kinds of living creatures: cattle, creeping things, and wild animals of all kinds." And so it happened:

25God made all kinds of wild animals, all kinds of cattle, and all kinds of creeping things of the earth. God saw how good it was.

26Then God said: "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. Let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, the birds of the air, and the cattle, and over all the wild animals and all the creatures that crawl on the ground."

27God created man in his image; in the divine image he created him; male and female he created them.

28God blessed them, saying: "Be fertile and multiply; fill the earth and subdue it. Have dominion over the fish of the sea, the birds of the air, and all the living things that move on the earth."

29God also said: "See, I give you every seed-bearing plant all over the earth and every tree that has seed-bearing fruit on it to be your food;

30and to all the animals of the land, all the birds of the air, and all the living creatures that crawl on the ground, I give all the green plants for food." And so it happened.

31God looked at everything he had made, and he found it very good. Evening came, and morning followed--the sixth day.

2Thus the heavens and the earth and all their array were completed.

2Since on the seventh day God was finished with the work he had been doing, he rested on the seventh day from all the work he had undertaken.

3So God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it he rested from all the work he had done in creation.

4Such is the story of the heavens and the earth at their creation. At the time when the LORD God made the earth and the heavens--

5while as yet there was no field shrub on earth and no grass of the field had sprouted, for the LORD God had sent no rain upon the earth and there was no man to till the soil,

6but a stream was welling up out of the earth and was watering all the surface of the ground--

7the LORD God formed man out of the clay of the ground and blew into his nostrils the breath of life, and so man became a living being.

8Then the LORD God planted a garden in Eden, in the east, and he placed there the man whom he had formed.

9Out of the ground the LORD God made various trees grow that were delightful to look at and good for food, with the tree of life in the middle of the garden and the tree of the knowledge of good and bad.

10A river rises in Eden to water the garden; beyond there it divides and becomes four branches.

11The name of the first is the Pishon; it is the one that winds through the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold.

12The gold of that land is excellent; bdellium and lapis lazuli are also there.

13The name of the second river is the Gihon; it is the one that winds all through the land of Cush.

14The name of the third river is the Tigris; it is the one that flows east of Asshur. The fourth river is the Euphrates.

15The LORD God then took the man and settled him in the garden of Eden, to cultivate and care for it.

16The LORD God gave man this order: "You are free to eat from any of the trees of the garden

17except the tree of knowledge of good and bad. From that tree you shall not eat; the moment you eat from it you are surely doomed to die."

18The LORD God said: "It is not good for the man to be alone. I will make a suitable partner for him."

19So the LORD God formed out of the ground various wild animals and various birds of the air, and he brought them to the man to see what he would call them; whatever the man called each of them would be its name.

20The man gave names to all the cattle, all the birds of the air, and all the wild animals; but none proved to be the suitable partner for the man.

21So the LORD God cast a deep sleep on the man, and while he was asleep, he took out one of his ribs and closed up its place with flesh.

22The LORD God then built up into a woman the rib that he had taken from the man. When he brought her to the man,

23the man said: "This one, at last, is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; This one shall be called 'woman,' for out of 'her man' this one has been taken."

24That is why a man leaves his father and mother and clings to his wife, and the two of them become one body.

25The man and his wife were both naked, yet they felt no shame.

3Now the serpent was the most cunning of all the animals that the LORD God had made. The serpent asked the woman, "Did God really tell you not to eat from any of the trees in the garden?"

2The woman answered the serpent: "We may eat of the fruit of the trees in the garden;

3it is only about the fruit of the tree in the middle of the garden that God said, 'You shall not eat it or even touch it, lest you die.'"

4But the serpent said to the woman: "You certainly will not die!

5No, God knows well that the moment you eat of it your eyes will be opened and you will be like gods who know what is good and what is bad."

6The woman saw that the tree was good for food, pleasing to the eyes, and desirable for gaining wisdom. So she took some of its fruit and ate it; and she also gave some to her husband, who was with her, and he ate it.

7Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they realized that they were naked; so they sewed fig leaves together and made loincloths for themselves.

8When they heard the sound of the LORD God moving about in the garden at the breezy time of the day, the man and his wife hid themselves from the LORD God among the trees of the garden.

9The LORD God then called to the man and asked him, "Where are you?"

10He answered, "I heard you in the garden; but I was afraid, because I was naked, so I hid myself."

11Then he asked, "Who told you that you were naked? You have eaten, then, from the tree of which I had forbidden you to eat!"

12The man replied, "The woman whom you put here with me--she gave me fruit from the tree, so I ate it."

13The LORD God then asked the woman, "Why did you do such a thing?" The woman answered, "The serpent tricked me into it, so I ate it."

14Then the LORD God said to the serpent: "Because you have done this, you shall be banned from all the animals and from all the wild creatures; On your belly shall you crawl, and dirt shall you eat all the days of your life.

15I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and hers; He will strike at your head, while you strike at his heel."

16To the woman he said: "I will intensify the pangs of your childbearing; in pain shall you bring forth children. Yet your urge shall be for your husband, and he shall be your master."

17To the man he said: "Because you listened to your wife and ate from the tree of which I had forbidden you to eat, "Cursed be the ground because of you! In toil shall you eat its yield all the days of your life.

18Thorns and thistles shall it bring forth to you, as you eat of the plants of the field.

19By the sweat of your face shall you get bread to eat, Until you return to the ground, from which you were taken; For you are dirt, and to dirt you shall return."

20The man called his wife Eve, because she became the mother of all the living.

21For the man and his wife the LORD God made leather garments, with which he clothed them.

22Then the LORD God said: "See! The man has become like one of us, knowing what is good and what is bad! Therefore, he must not be allowed to put out his hand to take fruit from the tree of life also, and thus eat of it and live forever."

23The LORD God therefore banished him from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from which he had been taken.

24When he expelled the man, he settled him east of the garden of Eden; and he stationed the cherubim and the fiery revolving sword, to guard the way to the tree of life.

4The man had relations with his wife Eve, and she conceived and bore Cain, saying, "I have produced a man with the help of the LORD."

2Next she bore his brother Abel. Abel became a keeper of flocks, and Cain a tiller of the soil.

3In the course of time Cain brought an offering to the LORD from the fruit of the soil,

4while Abel, for his part, brought one of the best firstlings of his flock. The LORD looked with favor on Abel and his offering,

5but on Cain and his offering he did not. Cain greatly resented this and was crestfallen.

6So the LORD said to Cain: "Why are you so resentful and crestfallen?

7If you do well, you can hold up your head; but if not, sin is a demon lurking at the door: his urge is toward you, yet you can be his master."

8Cain said to his brother Abel, "Let us go out in the field." When they were in the field, Cain attacked his brother Abel and killed him.

9Then the LORD asked Cain, "Where is your brother Abel?" He answered, "I do not know. Am I my brother's keeper?"

10The LORD then said: "What have you done! Listen: your brother's blood cries out to me from the soil!

11Therefore you shall be banned from the soil that opened its mouth to receive your brother's blood from your hand.

12If you till the soil, it shall no longer give you its produce. You shall become a restless wanderer on the earth."

13Cain said to the LORD: "My punishment is too great to bear.

14Since you have now banished me from the soil, and I must avoid your presence and become a restless wanderer on the earth, anyone may kill me at sight."

15Not so!" the LORD said to him. "If anyone kills Cain, Cain shall be avenged sevenfold." So the LORD put a mark on Cain, lest anyone should kill him at sight.

16Cain then left the LORD'S presence and settled in the land of Nod, east of Eden.

17Cain had relations with his wife, and she conceived and bore Enoch. Cain also became the founder of a city, which he named after his son Enoch.

18To Enoch was born Irad, and Irad became the father of Mehujael; Mehujael became the father of Methusael, and Methusael became the father of Lamech.

19Lamech took two wives; the name of the first was Adah, and the name of the second Zillah.

20Adah gave birth to Jabal, the ancestor of all who dwell in tents and keep cattle.

21His brother's name was Jubal; he was the ancestor of all who play the lyre and the pipe.

22Zillah, on her part, gave birth to Tubalcain, the ancestor of all who forge instruments of bronze and iron. The sister of Tubalcain was Naamah.

23Lamech said to his wives: "Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; wives of Lamech, listen to my utterance: I have killed a man for wounding me, a boy for bruising me.

24If Cain is avenged sevenfold, then Lamech seventy-sevenfold."

25Adam again had relations with his wife, and she gave birth to a son whom she called Seth. "God has granted me more offspring in place of Abel," she said, "because Cain slew him."

26To Seth, in turn, a son was born, and he named him Enosh. At that time men began to invoke the LORD by name.

5This is the record of the descendants of Adam. When God created man, he made him in the likeness of God;

2he created them male and female. When they were created, he blessed them and named them "man."

3Adam was one hundred and thirty years old when he begot a son in his likeness, after his image; and he named him Seth.

4Adam lived eight hundred years after the birth of Seth, and he had other sons and daughters.

5The whole lifetime of Adam was nine hundred and thirty years; then he died.

6When Seth was one hundred and five years old, he became the father of Enosh.

7Seth lived eight hundred and seven years after the birth of Enosh, and he had other sons and daughters.

8The whole lifetime of Seth was nine hundred and twelve years; then he died.

9When Enosh was ninety years old, he became the father of Kenan.

10Enosh lived eight hundred and fifteen years after the birth of Kenan, and he had other sons and daughters.

11The whole lifetime of Enosh was nine hundred and five years; then he died.

12When Kenan was seventy years old, he became the father of Mahalalel.

13Kenan lived eight hundred and forty years after the birth of Mahalalel, and he had other sons and daughters.

14The whole lifetime of Kenan was nine hundred and ten years; then he died.

15When Mahalalel was sixty-five years old, he became the father of Jared.

16Mahalalel lived eight hundred and thirty years after the birth of Jared, and he had other sons and daughters.

17The whole lifetime of Mahalalel was eight hundred and ninety-five years; then he died.

18When Jared was one hundred and sixty-two years old, he became the father of Enoch.

19Jared lived eight hundred years after the birth of Enoch, and he had other sons and daughters.

20The whole lifetime of Jared was nine hundred and sixty-two years; then he died.

21When Enoch was sixty-five years old, he became the father of Methuselah.

22Enoch lived three hundred years after the birth of Methuselah, and he had other sons and daughters.

23The whole lifetime of Enoch was three hundred and sixty-five years.

24Then Enoch walked with God, and he was no longer here, for God took him.

25When Methuselah was one hundred and eighty-seven years old, he became the father of Lamech.

26Methuselah lived seven hundred and eighty-two years after the birth of Lamech, and he had other sons and daughters.

27The whole lifetime of Methuselah was nine hundred and sixty-nine years; then he died.

28When Lamech was one hundred and eighty-two years old, he begot a son

29and named him Noah, saying, "Out of the very ground that the LORD has put under a curse, this one shall bring us relief from our work and the toil of our hands."

30Lamech lived five hundred and ninety-five years after the birth of Noah, and he had other sons and daughters.

31The whole lifetime of Lamech was seven hundred and seventy-seven years; then he died.

32When Noah was five hundred years old, he became the father of Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

6When men began to multiply on earth and daughters were born to them,

2the sons of heaven saw how beautiful the daughters of man were, and so they took for their wives as many of them as they chose.

3Then the LORD said: "My spirit shall not remain in man forever, since he is but flesh. His days shall comprise one hundred and twenty years."

4At that time the Nephilim appeared on earth (as well as later), after the sons of heaven had intercourse with the daughters of man, who bore them sons. They were the heroes of old, the men of renown.

5When the LORD saw how great was man's wickedness on earth, and how no desire that his heart conceived was ever anything but evil,

6he regretted that he had made man on the earth, and his heart was grieved.

7So the LORD said: "I will wipe out from the earth the men whom I have created, and not only the men, but also the beasts and the creeping things and the birds of the air, for I am sorry that I made them."

8But Noah found favor with the LORD.

9These are the descendants of Noah. Noah, a good man and blameless in that age,

10for he walked with God, begot three sons: Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

11In the eyes of God the earth was corrupt and full of lawlessness.

12When God saw how corrupt the earth had become, since all mortals led depraved lives on earth,

13he said to Noah: "I have decided to put an end to all mortals on earth; the earth is full of lawlessness because of them. So I will destroy them and all life on earth.

14Make yourself an ark of gopherwood, put various compartments in it, and cover it inside and out with pitch.

15This is how you shall build it: the length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, its width fifty cubits, and its height thirty cubits.

16Make an opening for daylight in the ark, and finish the ark a cubit above it. Put an entrance in the side of the ark, which you shall make with bottom, second and third decks.

17I, on my part, am about to bring the flood (waters) on the earth, to destroy everywhere all creatures in which there is the breath of life; everything on earth shall perish.

18But with you I will establish my covenant; you and your sons, your wife and your sons' wives, shall go into the ark.

19Of all other living creatures you shall bring two into the ark, one male and one female, that you may keep them alive with you.

20Of all kinds of birds, of all kinds of beasts, and of all kinds of creeping things, two of each shall come into the ark with you, to stay alive.

21Moreover, you are to provide yourself with all the food that is to be eaten, and store it away, that it may serve as provisions for you and for them."

22This Noah did; he carried out all the commands that God gave him.

7Then the LORD said to Noah: "Go into the ark, you and all your household, for you alone in this age have I found to be truly just.

2Of every clean animal, take with you seven pairs, a male and its mate; and of the unclean animals, one pair, a male and its mate;

3likewise, of every clean bird of the air, seven pairs, a male and a female, and of all the unclean birds, one pair, a male and a female. Thus you will keep their issue alive over all the earth.

4Seven days from now I will bring rain down on the earth for forty days and forty nights, and so I will wipe out from the surface of the earth every moving creature that I have made."

5Noah did just as the LORD had commanded him.

6Noah was six hundred years old when the flood waters came upon the earth.

7Together with his sons, his wife, and his sons' wives, Noah went into the ark because of the waters of the flood.

8Of the clean animals and the unclean, of the birds, and of everything that creeps on the ground,

9(two by two) male and female entered the ark with Noah, just as the LORD had commanded him.

10As soon as the seven days were over, the waters of the flood came upon the earth.

11In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month: it was on that day that All the fountains of the great abyss burst forth, and the floodgates of the sky were opened.

12For forty days and forty nights heavy rain poured down on the earth.

13On the precise day named, Noah and his sons Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and Noah's wife, and the three wives of Noah's sons had entered the ark,

14together with every kind of wild beast, every kind of domestic animal, every kind of creeping thing of the earth, and every kind of bird.

15Pairs of all creatures in which there was the breath of life entered the ark with Noah.

16Those that entered were male and female, and of all species they came, as God had commanded Noah. Then the LORD shut him in.

17The flood continued upon the earth for forty days. As the waters increased, they lifted the ark, so that it rose above the earth.

18The swelling waters increased greatly, but the ark floated on the surface of the waters.

19Higher and higher above the earth rose the waters, until all the highest mountains everywhere were submerged,

20the crest rising fifteen cubits higher than the submerged mountains.

21All creatures that stirred on earth perished: birds, cattle, wild animals, and all that swarmed on the earth, as well as all mankind.

22Everything on dry land with the faintest breath of life in its nostrils died out.

23The LORD wiped out every living thing on earth: man and cattle, the creeping things and the birds of the air; all were wiped out from the earth. Only Noah and those with him in the ark were left.

24The waters maintained their crest over the earth for one hundred and fifty days,

8and then God remembered Noah and all the animals, wild and tame, that were with him in the ark. So God made a wind sweep over the earth, and the waters began to subside.

2The fountains of the abyss and the floodgates of the sky were closed, and the downpour from the sky was held back.

3Gradually the waters receded from the earth. At the end of one hundred and fifty days, the waters had so diminished

4that, in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, the ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat.

5The waters continued to diminish until the tenth month, and on the first day of the tenth month the tops of the mountains appeared.

6At the end of forty days Noah opened the hatch he had made in the ark,

7and he sent out a raven, to see if the waters had lessened on the earth. It flew back and forth until the waters dried off from the earth.

8Then he sent out a dove, to see if the waters had lessened on the earth.

9But the dove could find no place to alight and perch, and it returned to him in the ark, for there was water all over the earth. Putting out his hand, he caught the dove and drew it back to him inside the ark.

10He waited seven days more and again sent the dove out from the ark.

11In the evening the dove came back to him, and there in its bill was a plucked-off olive leaf! So Noah knew that the waters had lessened on the earth.

12He waited still another seven days and then released the dove once more; and this time it did not come back.

13In the six hundred and first year of Noah's life, in the first month, on the first day of the month, the water began to dry up on the earth. Noah then removed the covering of the ark and saw that the surface of the ground was drying up.

14In the second month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, the earth was dry.

15Then God said to Noah:

16"Go out of the ark, together with your wife and your sons and your sons' wives.

17Bring out with you every living thing that is with you--all bodily creatures, be they birds or animals or creeping things of the earth-and let them abound on the earth, breeding and multiplying on it."

18So Noah came out, together with his wife and his sons and his sons' wives;

19and all the animals, wild and tame, all the birds, and all the creeping creatures of the earth left the ark, one kind after another.

20Then Noah built an altar to the LORD, and choosing from every clean animal and every clean bird, he offered holocausts on the altar.

21When the LORD smelled the sweet odor, he said to himself: "Never again will I doom the earth because of man, since the desires of man's heart are evil from the start; nor will I ever again strike down all living beings, as I have done.

22As long as the earth lasts, seedtime and harvest, cold and heat, Summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease."

9God blessed Noah and his sons and said to them: "Be fertile and multiply and fill the earth.

2Dread fear of you shall come upon all the animals of the earth and all the birds of the air, upon all the creatures that move about on the ground and all the fishes of the sea; into your power they are delivered.

3Every creature that is alive shall be yours to eat; I give them all to you as I did the green plants.

4Only flesh with its lifeblood still in it you shall not eat.

5For your own lifeblood, too, I will demand an accounting: from every animal I will demand it, and from man in regard to his fellow man I will demand an accounting for human life.

6If anyone sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed; For in the image of God has man been made.

7Be fertile, then, and multiply; abound on earth and subdue it."

8God said to Noah and to his sons with him:

9"See, I am now establishing my covenant with you and your descendants after you

10and with every living creature that was with you: all the birds, and the various tame and wild animals that were with you and came out of the ark.

11I will establish my covenant with you, that never again shall all bodily creatures be destroyed by the waters of a flood; there shall not be another flood to devastate the earth."

12God added: "This is the sign that I am giving for all ages to come, of the covenant between me and you and every living creature with you:

13I set my bow in the clouds to serve as a sign of the covenant between me and the earth.

14When I bring clouds over the earth, and the bow appears in the clouds,

15I will recall the covenant I have made between me and you and all living beings, so that the waters shall never again become a flood to destroy all mortal beings.

16As the bow appears in the clouds, I will see it and recall the everlasting covenant that I have established between God and all living beings--all mortal creatures that are on earth."

17God told Noah: "This is the sign of the covenant I have established between me and all mortal creatures that are on earth."

18The sons of Noah who came out of the ark were Shem, Ham and Japheth. (Ham was the father of Canaan.)

19These three were the sons of Noah, and from them the whole earth was peopled.

20Now Noah, a man of the soil, was the first to plant a vineyard.

21When he drank some of the wine, he became drunk and lay naked inside his tent.

22Ham, the father of Canaan, saw his father's nakedness, and he told his two brothers outside about it.

23Shem and Japheth, however, took a robe, and holding it on their backs, they walked backward and covered their father's nakedness; since their faces were turned the other way, they did not see their father's nakedness.

24When Noah woke up from his drunkenness and learned what his youngest son had done to him,

25he said: "Cursed be Caanan! The lowest of slaves shall he be to his brothers."

26He also said: "Blessed be the LORD, the God of Shem! Let Canaan be his slave.

27May God expand Japheth, so that he dwells among the tents of Shem; and let Canaan be his slave."

28Noah lived three hundred and fifty years after the flood.

29The whole lifetime of Noah was nine hundred and fifty years; then he died.

10These are the descendants of Noah's sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth, to whom sons were born after the flood.

2The descendants of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras.

3The descendants of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah.

4The descendants of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, the Kittim, and the Rodanim.

5These are the descendants of Japheth, and from them sprang the maritime nations, in their respective lands--each with its own language--by their clans within their nations.

6The descendants of Ham: Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan.

7The descendants of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca. The descendants of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan.

8Cush became the father of Nimrod, who was the first potentate on earth.

9He was a mighty hunter by the grace of the LORD; hence the saying, "Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter by the grace of the LORD."

10The chief cities of his kingdom were Babylon, Erech, and Accad, all of them in the land of Shinar.

11From that land he went forth to Asshur, where he built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, and Calah,

12as well as Resen, between Nineveh and Calah, the latter being the principal city.

13Mizraim became the father of the Ludim, the Anamim, the Lehabim, the Naphtuhim,

14the Pathrusim, the Casluhim, and the Caphtorim from whom the Philistines sprang.

15Canaan became the father of Sidon, his first-born, and of Heth;

16also of the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites,

17the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites,

18the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Afterward, the clans of the Canaanites spread out,

19so that the Canaanite borders extended from Sidon all the way to Gerar, near Gaza, and all the way to Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboiim, near Lasha.

20These are the descendants of Ham, according to their clans and languages, by their lands and nations.

21To Shem also, Japheth's oldest brother and the ancestor of all the children of Eber, sons were born.

22The descendants of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, and Aram.

23The descendants of Aram: Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash.

24Arpachshad became the father of Shelah, and Shelah became the father of Eber.

25To Eber two sons were born: the name of the first was Peleg, for in his time the world was divided; and the name of his brother was Joktan.

26Joktan became the father of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah,

27Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah,

28Obal, Abimael, Sheba,

29Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab. All these were descendants of Joktan.

30Their settlements extended all the way to Sephar, the eastern hill country.

31These are the descendants of Shem, according to their clans and languages by their lands and nations.

32These are the groupings of Noah's sons, according to their origins and by their nations. From these the other nations of the earth branched out after the flood.

11The whole world spoke the same language, using the same words.

2While men were migrating in the east, they came upon a valley in the land of Shinar and settled there.

3They said to one another, "Come, let us mold bricks and harden them with fire." They used bricks for stone, and bitumen for mortar.

4Then they said, "Come, let us build ourselves a city and a tower with its top in the sky, and so make a name for ourselves; otherwise we shall be scattered all over the earth."

5LORD came down to see the city and the tower that the men had built.

6Then the LORD said: "If now, while they are one people, all speaking the same language, they have started to do this, nothing will later stop them from doing whatever they presume to do.

7Let us then go down and there confuse their language, so that one will not understand what another says."

8Thus the LORD scattered them from there all over the earth, and they stopped building the city.

9That is why it was called Babel, because there the LORD confused the speech of all the world. It was from that place that he scattered them all over the earth.

10This is the record of the descendants of Shem. When Shem was one hundred years old, he became the father of Arpachshad, two years after the flood.

11Shem lived five hundred years after the birth of Arpachshad, and he had other sons and daughters.

12When Arpachshad was thirty-five years old, he became the father of Shelah.

13Arpachshad lived four hundred and three years after the birth of Shelah, and he had other sons and daughters.

14When Shelah was thirty years old, he became the father of Eber.

15Shelah lived four hundred and three years after the birth of Eber, and he had other sons and daughters.

16When Eber was thirty-four years old, he became the father of Peleg.

17Eber lived four hundred and thirty years after the birth of Peleg, and he had other sons and daughters.

18When Peleg was thirty years old, he became the father of Reu.

19Peleg lived two hundred and nine years after the birth of Reu, and he had other sons and daughters.

20When Reu was thirty-two years old, he became the father of Serug.

21Reu lived two hundred and seven years after the birth of Serug, and he had other sons and daughters.

22When Serug was thirty years old, he became the father of Nahor.

23Serug lived two hundred years after the birth of Nahor, and he had other sons and daughters.

24When Nahor was twenty-nine years old, he became the father of Terah.

25Nahor lived one hundred and nineteen years after the birth of Terah, and he had other sons and daughters.

26When Terah was seventy years old, he became the father of Abram, Nahor and Haran.

27This is the record of the descendants of Terah. Terah became the father of Abram, Nahor, and Haran, and Haran became the father of Lot.

28Haran died before his father Terah, in his native land, in Ur of the Chaldeans.

29Abram and Nahor took wives; the name of Abram's wife was Sarai, and the name of Nahor's wife was Milcah, daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah and Iscah.

30Sarai was barren; she had no child.

31Terah took his son Abram, his grandson Lot, son of Haran, and his daughter-in-law Sarai, the wife of his son Abram, and brought them out of Ur of the Chaldeans, to go to the land of Canaan. But when they reached Haran, they settled there.

32The lifetime of Terah was two hundred and five years; then Terah died in Haran.

12The LORD said to Abram: "Go forth from the land of your kinsfolk and from your father's house to a land that I will show you.

2"I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you; I will make your name great, so that you will be a blessing.

3I will bless those who bless you and curse those who curse you. All the communities of the earth shall find blessing in you."

4Abram went as the LORD directed him, and Lot went with him. Abram was seventy-five years old when he left Haran.

5Abram took his wife Sarai, his brother's son Lot, all the possessions that they had accumulated, and the persons they had acquired in Haran, and they set out for the land of Canaan. When they came to the land of Canaan,

6Abram passed through the land as far as the sacred place at Shechem, by the terebinth of Moreh. (The Canaanites were then in the land.)

7The LORD appeared to Abram and said, "To your descendants I will give this land." So Abram built an altar there to the LORD who had appeared to him.

8From there he moved on to the hill country east of Bethel, pitching his tent with Bethel to the west and Ai to the east. He built an altar there to the LORD and invoked the LORD by name.

9Then Abram journeyed on by stages to the Negeb.

10There was famine in the land; so Abram went down to Egypt to sojourn there, since the famine in the land was severe.

11When he was about to enter Egypt, he said to his wife Sarai: "I know well how beautiful a woman you are.

12When the Egyptians see you, they will say, 'She is his wife'; then they will kill me, but let you live.

13Please say, therefore, that you are my sister, so that it may go well with me on your account and my life may be spared for your sake."

14When Abram came to Egypt, the Egyptians saw how beautiful the woman was; and when Pharaoh's courtiers saw her,

15they praised her to Pharaoh. So she was taken into Pharaoh's palace.

16On her account it went very well with Abram, and he received flocks and herds, male and female slaves, male and female asses, and camels.

17But the LORD struck Pharaoh and his household with severe plagues because of Abram's wife Sarai.

18Then Pharaoh summoned Abram and said to him: "How could you do this to me! Why didn't you tell me she was your wife?

19Why did you say, 'She is my sister,' so that I took her for my wife? Here, then, is your wife. Take her and be gone!"

20Then Pharaoh gave men orders concerning him, and they sent him on his way, with his wife and all that belonged to him.

13From Egypt Abram went up to the Negeb with his wife and all that belonged to him, and Lot accompanied him.

2Now Abram was very rich in livestock, silver, and gold.

3From the Negeb he traveled by stages toward Bethel, to the place between Bethel and Ai where his tent had formerly stood,

4the site where he had first built the altar; and there he invoked the LORD by name.

5Lot, who went with Abram, also had flocks and herds and tents,

6so that the land could not support them if they stayed together; their possessions were so great that they could not dwell together.

7There were quarrels between the herdsmen of Abram's livestock and those of Lot's. (At this time the Canaanites and the Perizzites were occupying the land.)

8So Abram said to Lot: "Let there be no strife between you and me, or between your herdsmen and mine, for we are kinsmen.

9Is not the whole land at your disposal? Please separate from me. If you prefer the left, I will go to the right; if you prefer the right, I will go to the left."

10Lot looked about and saw how well watered the whole Jordan Plain was as far as Zoar, like the LORD'S own garden, or like Egypt. (This was before the LORD had destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah.)

11Lot, therefore, chose for himself the whole Jordan Plain and set out eastward. Thus they separated from each other;

12Abram stayed in the land of Canaan, while Lot settled among the cities of the Plain, pitching his tents near Sodom.

13Now the inhabitants of Sodom were very wicked in the sins they committed against the LORD.

14After Lot had left, the LORD said to Abram: "Look about you, and from where you are, gaze to the north and south, east and west;

15all the land that you see I will give to you and your descendants forever.

16I will make your descendants like the dust of the earth; if anyone could count the dust of the earth, your descendants too might be counted.

17Set forth and walk about in the land, through its length and breadth, for to you I will give it."

18Abram moved his tents and went on to settle near the terebinth of Mamre, which is at Hebron. There he built an altar to the LORD.

14In the days of. . . , Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim

2made war on Bera king of Sodom, Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar).

3All the latter kings joined forces in the Valley of Siddim (that is, the Salt Sea).

4For twelve years they had been subject to Chedorlaomer, but in the thirteenth year they rebelled.

5In the fourteenth year Chedorlaomer and the kings allied with him came and defeated the Rephaim in Ashteroth-karnaim, the Zuzim in Ham, the Emim in Shaveh-kiriathaim,

6and the Horites in the hill country of Seir, as far as Elparan, close by the wilderness.

7They then turned back and came to Enmishpat (that is, Kadesh), and they subdued the whole country both of the Amalekites and of the Amorites who dwelt in Hazazon-tamar.

8Thereupon the king of Sodom, the king of Gomorrah, the king of Admah, the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar) marched out, and in the Valley of Siddim they went into battle against them:

9against Chedorlaomer king of Elam, Tidal king of Goiim, Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar-four kings against five.

10Now the Valley of Siddim was full of bitumen pits; and as the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, they fell into these, while the rest fled to the mountains.

11The victors seized all the possessions and food supplies of Sodom and Gomorrah and then went their way,

12taking with them Abram's nephew Lot, who had been living in Sodom, as well as his possessions.

13A fugitive came and brought the news to Abram the Hebrew, who was camping at the terebinth of Mamre the Amorite, a kinsman of Eshcol and Aner; these were in league with Abram.

14When Abram heard that his nephew had been captured, he mustered three hundred and eighteen of his retainers, born in his house, and went in pursuit as far as Dan.

15He and his party deployed against them at night, defeated them, and pursued them as far as Hobah, which is north of Damascus.

16He recovered all the possessions, besides bringing back his kinsman Lot and his possessions, along with the women and the other captives.

17When Abram returned from his victory over Chedorlaomer and the kings who were allied with him, the king of Sodom went out to greet him in the Valley of Shaveh (that is, the King's Valley).

18Melchizedek, king of Salem, brought out bread and wine, and being a priest of God Most High, he blessed Abram with these words:

19Blessed be Abram by God Most High, the creator of heaven and earth;

20And blessed be God Most High, who delivered your foes into your hand." Then Abram gave him a tenth of everything.

21The king of Sodom said to Abram, "Give me the people; the goods you may keep."

22But Abram replied to the king of Sodom: "I have sworn to the LORD, God Most High, the creator of heaven and earth,

23that I would not take so much as a thread or a sandal strap from anything that is yours, lest you should say, 'I made Abram rich.'

24Nothing for me except what my servants have used up and the share that is due to the men who joined me--Aner, Eshcol and Mamre; let them take their share."

15Some time after these events, this word of the LORD came to Abram in a vision: "Fear not, Abram! I am your shield; I will make your reward very great."

2But Abram said, "O Lord GOD, what good will your gifts be, if I keep on being childless and have as my heir the steward of my house, Eliezer?"

3Abram continued, "See, you have given me no offspring, and so one of my servants will be my heir."

4Then the word of the LORD came to him: "No, that one shall not be your heir; your own issue shall be your heir."

5He took him outside and said: "Look up at the sky and count the stars, if you can. Just so," he added, "shall your descendants be."

6Abram put his faith in the LORD, who credited it to him as an act of righteousness.

7He then said to him, "I am the LORD who brought you from Ur of the Chaldeans to give you this land as a possession."

8"O Lord GOD," he asked, "How am I to know that I shall possess it?"

9He answered him, "Bring me a three-year-old heifer, a three-year-old she-goat, a three-year-old ram, a turtle-dove, and a young pigeon."

10He brought him all these, split them in two, and placed each half opposite the other; but the birds he did not cut up.

11Birds of prey swooped down on the carcasses, but Abram stayed with them.

12As the sun was about to set, a trance fell upon Abram, and a deep, terrifying darkness enveloped him.

13Then the LORD said to Abram: "Know for certain that your descendants shall be aliens in a land not their own, where they shall be enslaved and oppressed for four hundred years.

14But I will bring judgment on the nation they must serve, and in the end they will depart with great wealth.

15You, however, shall join your forefathers in peace; you shall be buried at a contented old age.

16In the fourth time-span the others shall come back here; the wickedness of the Amorites will not have reached its full measure until then."

17When the sun had set and it was dark, there appeared a smoking brazier and a flaming torch, which passed between those pieces.

18It was on that occasion that the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying: "To your descendants I give this land, from the Wadi of Egypt to the Great River (the Euphrates),

19the land of the Kenites, the Kenizzites, the Kadmonites,

20the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Rephaim,

21the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Girgashites, and the Jebusites."

16Abram's wife Sarai had borne him no children. She had, however, an Egyptian maidservant named Hagar.

2Sarai said to Abram: "The LORD has kept me from bearing children. Have intercourse, then, with my maid; perhaps I shall have sons through her." Abram heeded Sarai's request.

3Thus, after Abram had lived ten years in the land of Canaan, his wife Sarai took her maid, Hagar the Egyptian, and gave her to her husband Abram to be his concubine.

4He had intercourse with her, and she became pregnant. When she became aware of her pregnancy, she looked on her mistress with disdain.

5So Sarai said to Abram: "You are responsible for this outrage against me. I myself gave my maid to your embrace; but ever since she became aware of her pregnancy, she has been looking on me with disdain. May the LORD decide between you and me!"

6Abram told Sarai: "Your maid is in your power. Do to her whatever you please." Sarai then abused her so much that Hagar ran away from her.

7The LORD'S messenger found her by a spring in the wilderness, the spring on the road to Shur,

8and he asked, "Hagar, maid of Sarai, where have you come from and where are you going?" She answered, "I am running away from my mistress, Sarai."

9But the LORD'S messenger told her: "Go back to your mistress and submit to her abusive treatment.

10I will make your descendants so numerous," added the LORD'S messenger, "that they will be too many to count.

11Besides," the LORD'S messenger said to her: "You are now pregnant and shall bear a son; you shall name him Ishmael, For the LORD has heard you, God has answered you.

12He shall be a wild ass of a man, his hand against everyone, and everyone's hand against him; In opposition to all his kin shall he encamp."

13To the LORD who spoke to her she gave a name, saying, "You are the God of Vision"; she meant, "Have I really seen God and remained alive after my vision?"

14That is why the well is called Beer-lahai-roi. It is between Kadesh and Bered.

15Hagar bore Abram a son, and Abram named the son whom Hagar bore him Ishmael.

16Abram was eighty-six years old when Hagar bore him Ishmael.

17When Abram was ninety-nine years old, the LORD appeared to him and said: "I am God the Almighty. Walk in my presence and be blameless.

2Between you and me I will establish my covenant, and I will multiply you exceedingly."

3When Abram prostrated himself, God continued to speak to him:

4"My covenant with you is this: you are to become the father of a host of nations.

5No longer shall you be called Abram; your name shall be Abraham, for I am making you the father of a host of nations.

6I will render you exceedingly fertile; I will make nations of you; kings shall stem from you.

7I will maintain my covenant with you and your descendants after you throughout the ages as an everlasting pact, to be your God and the God of your descendants after you.

8I will give to you and to your descendants after you the land in which you are now staying, the whole land of Canaan, as a permanent possession; and I will be their God."

9God also said to Abraham: "On your part, you and your descendants after you must keep my covenant throughout the ages.

10This is my covenant with you and your descendants after you that you must keep: every male among you shall be circumcised.

11Circumcise the flesh of your foreskin, and that shall be the mark of the covenant between you and me.

12Throughout the ages, every male among you, when he is eight days old, shall be circumcised, including houseborn slaves and those acquired with money from any foreigner who is not of your blood.

13Yes, both the houseborn slaves and those acquired with money must be circumcised. Thus my covenant shall be in your flesh as an everlasting pact.

14If a male is uncircumcised, that is, if the flesh of his foreskin has not been cut away, such a one shall be cut off from his people; he has broken my covenant."

15God further said to Abraham: "As for your wife Sarai, do not call her Sarai; her name shall be Sarah.

16I will bless her, and I will give you a son by her. Him also will I bless; he shall give rise to nations, and rulers of peoples shall issue from him."

17Abraham prostrated himself and laughed as he said to himself, "Can a child be born to a man who is a hundred years old? Or can Sarah give birth at ninety?"

18Then Abraham said to God, "Let but Ishmael live on by your favor!"

19God replied: "Nevertheless, your wife Sarah is to bear you a son, and you shall call him Isaac. I will maintain my covenant with him as an everlasting pact, to be his God and the God of his descendants after him.

20As for Ishmael, I am heeding you: I hereby bless him. I will make him fertile and will multiply him exceedingly. He shall become the father of twelve chieftains, and I will make of him a great nation.

21But my covenant I will maintain with Isaac, whom Sarah shall bear to you by this time next year."

22When he had finished speaking with him, God departed from Abraham.

23Then Abraham took his son Ishmael and all his slaves, whether born in his house or acquired with his money--every male among the members of Abraham's household--and he circumcised the flesh of their foreskins on that same day, as God had told him to do.

24Abraham was ninety-nine years old when the flesh of his foreskin was circumcised,

25and his son Ishmael was thirteen years old when the flesh of his foreskin was circumcised.

26Thus, on that same day Abraham and his son Ishmael were circumcised;

27and all the male members of his household, including the slaves born in his house or acquired with his money from foreigners, were circumcised with him.

18The LORD appeared to Abraham by the terebinth of Mamre, as he sat in the entrance of his tent, while the day was growing hot.

2Looking up, he saw three men standing nearby. When he saw them, he ran from the entrance of the tent to greet them; and bowing to the ground,

3he said: "Sir, if I may ask you this favor, please do not go on past your servant.

4Let some water be brought, that you may bathe your feet, and then rest yourselves under the tree.

5Now that you have come this close to your servant, let me bring you a little food, that you may refresh yourselves; and afterward you may go on your way." "Very well," they replied, "do as you have said."

6Abraham hastened into the tent and told Sarah, "Quick, three seahs of fine flour! Knead it and make rolls."

7He ran to the herd, picked out a tender, choice steer, and gave it to a servant, who quickly prepared it.

8Then he got some curds and milk, as well as the steer that had been prepared, and set these before them; and he waited on them under the tree while they ate.

9"Where is your wife Sarah?" they asked him. "There in the tent," he replied.

10One of them said, "I will surely return to you about this time next year, and Sarah will then have a son." Sarah was listening at the entrance of the tent, just behind him.

11Now Abraham and Sarah were old, advanced in years, and Sarah had stopped having her womanly periods.

12So Sarah laughed to herself and said, "Now that I am so withered and my husband is so old, am I still to have sexual pleasure?"

13But the LORD said to Abraham: "Why did Sarah laugh and say, 'Shall I really bear a child, old as I am?'

14Is anything too marvelous for the LORD to do? At the appointed time, about this time next year, I will return to you, and Sarah will have a son."

15Because she was afraid, Sarah dissembled, saying, "I didn't laugh." But he said, "Yes you did."

16The men set out from there and looked down toward Sodom; Abraham was walking with them, to see them on their way.

17The LORD reflected: "Shall I hide from Abraham what I am about to do,

18now that he is to become a great and populous nation, and all the nations of the earth are to find blessing in him?

19Indeed, I have singled him out that he may direct his sons and his posterity to keep the way of the LORD by doing what is right and just, so that the LORD may carry into effect for Abraham the promises he made about him."

20Then the LORD said: "The outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is so great, and their sin so grave,

21that I must go down and see whether or not their actions fully correspond to the cry against them that comes to me. I mean to find out."

22While the two men walked on farther toward Sodom, the LORD remained standing before Abraham.

23Then Abraham drew nearer to him and said: "Will you sweep away the innocent with the guilty?

24Suppose there were fifty innocent people in the city; would you wipe out the place, rather than spare it for the sake of the fifty innocent people within it?

25Far be it from you to do such a thing, to make the innocent die with the guilty, so that the innocent and the guilty would be treated alike! Should not the judge of all the world act with justice?"

26The LORD replied, "If I find fifty innocent people in the city of Sodom, I will spare the whole place for their sake."

27Abraham spoke up again: "See how I am presuming to speak to my Lord, though I am but dust and ashes!

28What if there are five less than fifty innocent people? Will you destroy the whole city because of those five?" "I will not destroy it," he answered, "if I find forty-five there."

29But Abraham persisted, saying, "What if only forty are found there?" He replied, "I will forebear doing it for the sake of the forty."

30Then he said, "Let not my Lord grow impatient if I go on. What if only thirty are found there?" He replied, "I will forebear doing it if I can find but thirty there."

31Still he went on, "Since I have thus dared to speak to my Lord, what if there are no more than twenty?" "I will not destroy it," he answered, "for the sake of the twenty."

32But he still persisted: "Please, let not my Lord grow angry if I speak up this last time. What if there are at least ten there?" "For the sake of those ten," he replied, "I will not destroy it."

33The LORD departed as soon as he had finished speaking with Abraham, and Abraham returned home.

19The two angels reached Sodom in the evening, as Lot was sitting at the gate of Sodom. When Lot saw them, he got up to greet them; and bowing down with his face to the ground,

2he said, "Please, gentlemen, come aside into your servant's house for the night, and bathe your feet; you can get up early to continue your journey." But they replied, "No, we shall pass the night in the town square."

3He urged them so strongly, however, that they turned aside to his place and entered his house. He prepared a meal for them, baking cakes without leaven, and they dined.

4Before they went to bed, all the townsmen of Sodom, both young and old--all the people to the last man--closed in on the house.

5They called to Lot and said to him, "Where are the men who came to your house tonight? Bring them out to us that we may have intimacies with them."

6Lot went out to meet them at the entrance. When he had shut the door behind him,

7he said, "I beg you, my brothers, not to do this wicked thing.

8I have two daughters who have never had intercourse with men. Let me bring them out to you, and you may do to them as you please. But don't do anything to these men, for you know they have come under the shelter of my roof."

9They replied, "Stand back! This fellow," they sneered, "came here as an immigrant, and now he dares to give orders! We'll treat you worse than them!" With that, they pressed hard against Lot, moving in closer to break down the door.

10But his guests put out their hands, pulled Lot inside with them, and closed the door;

11at the same time they struck the men at the entrance of the house, one and all, with such a blinding light that they were utterly unable to reach the doorway.

12Then the angels said to Lot: "Who else belongs to you here? Your sons (sons-in-law) and your daughters and all who belong to you in the city--take them away from it!

13We are about to destroy this place, for the outcry reaching the LORD against those in the city is so great that he has sent us to destroy it."

14So Lot went out and spoke to his sons-in-law, who had contracted marriage with his daughters. "Get up and leave this place," he told them; "the LORD is about to destroy the city." But his sons-in-law thought he was joking.

15As dawn was breaking, the angels urged Lot on, saying, "On your way! Take with you your wife and your two daughters who are here, or you will be swept away in the punishment of the city."

16When he hesitated, the men, by the LORD'S mercy, seized his hand and the hands of his wife and his two daughters and led them to safety outside the city.

17As soon as they had been brought outside, he was told: "Flee for your life! Don't look back or stop anywhere on the Plain. Get off to the hills at once, or you will be swept away."

18"Oh, no, my lord!" replied Lot.

19"You have already thought enough of your servant to do me the great kindness of intervening to save my life. But I cannot flee to the hills to keep the disaster from overtaking me, and so I shall die.

20Look, this town ahead is near enough to escape to. It's only a small place. Let me flee there--it's a small place, isn't it?--that my life may be saved."

21"Well, then," he replied, "I will also grant you the favor you now ask. I will not overthrow the town you speak of.

22Hurry, escape there! I cannot do anything until you arrive there." That is why the town is called Zoar.

23The sun was just rising over the earth as Lot arrived in Zoar;

24at the same time the LORD rained down sulphurous fire upon Sodom and Gomorrah (from the LORD out of heaven).

25He overthrew those cities and the whole Plain, together with the inhabitants of the cities and the produce of the soil.

26But Lot's wife looked back, and she was turned into a pillar of salt.

27Early the next morning Abraham went to the place where he had stood in the LORD'S presence.

28As he looked down toward Sodom and Gomorrah and the whole region of the Plain, he saw dense smoke over the land rising like fumes from a furnace.

29Thus it came to pass: when God destroyed the Cities of the Plain, he was mindful of Abraham by sending Lot away from the upheaval by which God overthrew the cities where Lot had been living.

30Since Lot was afraid to stay in Zoar, he and his two daughters went up from Zoar and settled in the hill country, where he lived with his two daughters in a cave.

31The older one said to the younger: "Our father is getting old, and there is not a man on earth to unite with us as was the custom everywhere.

32Come, let us ply our father with wine and then lie with him, that we may have offspring by our father."

33So that night they plied their father with wine, and the older one went in and lay with her father; but he was not aware of her lying down or her getting up.

34Next day the older one said to the younger: "Last night it was I who lay with my father. Let us ply him with wine again tonight, and then you go in and lie with him, that we may both have offspring by our father."

35So that night, too, they plied their father with wine, and then the younger one went in and lay with him; but again he was not aware of her lying down or her getting up.

36Thus both of Lot's daughters became pregnant by their father.

37The older one gave birth to a son whom she named Moab, saying, "From my father." He is the ancestor of the Moabites of today.

38The younger one, too, gave birth to a son, and she named him Ammon, saying, "The son of my kin." He is the ancestor of the Ammonites of today.

20Abraham journeyed on to the region of the Negeb, where he settled between Kadesh and Shur. While he stayed in Gerar,

2he said of his wife Sarah, "She is my sister." So Abimelech, king of Gerar, sent and took Sarah.

3But God came to Abimelech in a dream one night and said to him, "You are about to die because of the woman you have taken, for she has a husband."

4Abimelech, who had not approached her, said: "O Lord, would you slay a man even though he is innocent?

5He himself told me, 'She is my sister,' and she herself also stated, 'He is my brother.' I did it in good faith and with clean hands."

6God answered him in the dream: "Yes, I know you did it in good faith. In fact, it was I who kept you from sinning against me; that is why I did not let you touch her.

7Therefore, return the man's wife--as a spokesman he will intercede for you--that your life may be saved. If you do not return her, you can be sure that you and all who are yours will certainly die."

8Early the next morning Abimelech called all his court officials and informed them of everything that had happened, and the men were horrified.

9Then Abimelech summoned Abraham and said to him: "How could you do this to us! What wrong did I do to you that you should have brought such monstrous guilt on me and my kingdom? You have treated me in an intolerable way.

10What were you afraid of," he asked him, "that you should have done such a thing?"

11"I was afraid," answered Abraham, "because I thought there would surely be no fear of God in this place, and so they would kill me on account of my wife.

12Besides, she is in truth my sister, but only my father's daughter, not my mother's; and so she became my wife.

13When God sent me wandering from my father's house, I asked her: 'Would you do me this favor? In whatever place we come to, say that I am your brother.'"

14Then Abimelech took flocks and herds and male and female slaves and gave them to Abraham; and after he restored his wife Sarah to him,

15he said, "Here, my land lies at your disposal; settle wherever you please."

16To Sarah he said: "See, I have given your brother a thousand shekels of silver. Let that serve you as a vindication before all who are with you; your honor has been preserved with everyone."

17Abraham then interceded with God, and God restored health to Abimelech, that is, to his wife and his maidservants, so that they could bear children;

18for God had tightly closed every womb in Abimelech's household on account of Abraham's wife Sarah.

21The LORD took note of Sarah as he had said he would; he did for her as he had promised.

2Sarah became pregnant and bore Abraham a son in his old age, at the set time that God had stated.

3Abraham gave the name Isaac to this son of his whom Sarah bore him.

4When his son Isaac was eight days old, Abraham circumcised him, as God had commanded.

5Abraham was a hundred years old when his son Isaac was born to him.

6Sarah then said, "God has given me cause to laugh, and all who hear of it will laugh with me.

7Who would have told Abraham," she added, "that Sarah would nurse children! Yet I have borne him a son in his old age."

8Isaac grew, and on the day of the child's weaning, Abraham held a great feast.

9Sarah noticed the son whom Hagar the Egyptian had borne to Abraham playing with her son Isaac;

10so she demanded of Abraham: "Drive out that slave and her son! No son of that slave is going to share the inheritance with my son Isaac!"

11Abraham was greatly distressed, especially on account of his son Ishmael.

12But God said to Abraham: "Do not be distressed about the boy or about your slave woman. Heed the demands of Sarah, no matter what she is asking of you; for it is through Isaac that descendants shall bear your name.

13As for the son of the slave woman, I will make a great nation of him also, since he too is your offspring."

14Early the next morning Abraham got some bread and a skin of water and gave them to Hagar. Then, placing the child on her back, he sent her away. As she roamed aimlessly in the wilderness of Beer-sheba,

15the water in the skin was used up. So she put the child down under a shrub,

16and then went and sat down opposite him, about a bowshot away; for she said to herself, "Let me not watch to see the child die." As she sat opposite him, he began to cry.

17God heard the boy's cry, and God's messenger called to Hagar from heaven: "What is the matter, Hagar? Don't be afraid; God has heard the boy's cry in this plight of his.

18Arise, lift up the boy and hold him by the hand; for I will make of him a great nation."

19Then God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water. She went and filled the skin with water, and then let the boy drink.

20God was with the boy as he grew up. He lived in the wilderness and became an expert bowman,

21with his home in the wilderness of Paran. His mother got a wife for him from the land of Egypt.

22About that time Abimelech, accompanied by Phicol, the commander of his army, said to Abraham: "God is with you in everything you do.

23Therefore, swear to me by God at this place that you will not deal falsely with me or with my progeny and posterity, but will act as loyally toward me and the land in which you stay as I have acted toward you."

24To this Abraham replied, "I so swear."

25Abraham, however, reproached Abimelech about a well that Abimelech's men had seized by force.

26"I have no idea who did that," Abimelech replied. "In fact, you never told me about it, nor did I ever hear of it until now."

27Then Abraham took sheep and cattle and gave them to Abimelech and the two made a pact.

28Abraham also set apart seven ewe lambs of the flock,

29and Abimelech asked him, "What is the purpose of these seven ewe lambs that you have set apart?"

30Abraham answered, "The seven ewe lambs you shall accept from me that thus I may have your acknowledgment that the well was dug by me."

31This is why the place is called Beer-sheba; the two took an oath there.

32When they had thus made the pact in Beer-sheba, Abimelech, along with Phicol, the commander of his army, left and returned to the land of the Philistines.

33Abraham planted a tamarisk at Beer-sheba, and there he invoked by name the LORD, God the Eternal.

34Abraham resided in the land of the Philistines for many years.

22Some time after these events, God put Abraham to the test. He called to him, "Abraham!" "Ready!" he replied.

2Then God said: "Take your son Isaac, your only one, whom you love, and go to the land of Moriah. There you shall offer him up as a holocaust on a height that I will point out to you."

3Early the next morning Abraham saddled his donkey, took with him his son Isaac, and two of his servants as well, and with the wood that he had cut for the holocaust, set out for the place of which God had told him.

4On the third day Abraham got sight of the place from afar.

5Then he said to his servants: "Both of you stay here with the donkey, while the boy and I go on over yonder. We will worship and then come back to you."

6Thereupon Abraham took the wood for the holocaust and laid it on his son Isaac's shoulders, while he himself carried the fire and the knife.

7As the two walked on together, Isaac spoke to his father Abraham. "Father!" he said. "Yes, son," he replied. Isaac continued, "Here are the fire and the wood, but where is the sheep for the holocaust?"

8"Son," Abraham answered, "God himself will provide the sheep for the holocaust." Then the two continued going forward.

9When they came to the place of which God had told him, Abraham built an altar there and arranged the wood on it. Next he tied up his son Isaac, and put him on top of the wood on the altar.

10Then he reached out and took the knife to slaughter his son.

11But the LORD'S messenger called to him from heaven, "Abraham, Abraham!" "Yes, Lord," he answered.

12"Do not lay your hand on the boy," said the messenger. "Do not do the least thing to him. I know now how devoted you are to God, since you did not withhold from me your own beloved son."

13As Abraham looked about, he spied a ram caught by its horns in the thicket. So he went and took the ram and offered it up as a holocaust in place of his son.

14Abraham named the site Yahweh-yireh; hence people now say, "On the mountain the LORD will see."

15Again the LORD'S messenger called to Abraham from heaven

16and said: "I swear by myself, declares the LORD, that because you acted as you did in not withholding from me your beloved son,

17I will bless you abundantly and make your descendants as countless as the stars of the sky and the sands of the seashore; your descendants shall take possession of the gates of their enemies,

18and in your descendants all the nations of the earth shall find blessing--all this because you obeyed my command.''

19Abraham then returned to his servants, and they set out together for Beer-sheba, where Abraham made his home.

20Some time afterward, the news came to Abraham: "Milcah too has borne sons, to your brother Nahor:

21Uz, his first-born, his brother Buz, Kemuel (the father of Aram),

22Chesed, Hazo, Pildash, Jidlaph, and Bethuel."

23Bethuel became the father of Rebekah. These eight Milcah bore to Abraham's brother Nahor.

24His concubine, whose name was Reumah, also bore children: Tebah, Gaham, Tahash, and Maacah.

23The span of Sarah's life was one hundred and twenty-seven years.

2She died in Kiriatharba (that is, Hebron) in the land of Canaan, and Abraham performed the customary mourning rites for her.

3Then he left the side of his dead one and addressed the Hittites:

4"Although I am a resident alien among you, sell me from your holdings a piece of property for a burial ground, that I may bury my dead wife."

5The Hittites answered Abraham: "Please, sir,

6listen to us! You are an elect of God among us. Bury your dead in the choicest of our burial sites. None of us would deny you his burial ground for the burial of your dead."

7Abraham, however, began to bow low before the local citizens, the Hittites,

8while he appealed to them: "If you will allow me room for burial of my dead, listen to me! Intercede for me with Ephron, son of Zohar, asking him

9to sell me the cave of Machpelah that he owns; it is at the edge of his field. Let him sell it to me in your presence, at its full price, for a burial place."

10Now Ephron was present with the Hittites. So Ephron the Hittite replied to Abraham in the hearing of the Hittites who sat on his town council:

11"Please, sir, listen to me! I give you both the field and the cave in it; in the presence of my kinsmen I make this gift. Bury your dead!"

12But Abraham, after bowing low before the local citizens, addressed Ephron in the hearing of these men:

13"Ah, if only you would please listen to me! I will pay you the price of the field. Accept it from me, that I may bury my dead there."

14Ephron replied to Abraham, "Please,

15sir, listen to me! A piece of land worth four hundred shekels of silver--what is that between you and me, as long as you can bury your dead?"

16Abraham accepted Ephron's terms; he weighed out to him the silver that Ephron had stipulated in the hearing of the Hittites, four hundred shekels of silver at the current market value.

17Thus Ephron's field in Machpelah, facing Mamre, together with its cave and all the trees anywhere within its limits, was conveyed

18to Abraham by purchase in the presence of all the Hittites who sat on Ephron's town council.

19After this transaction, Abraham buried his wife Sarah in the cave of the field of Machpelah, facing Mamre (that is, Hebron) in the land of Canaan.

20Thus the field with its cave was transferred from the Hittites to Abraham as a burial place.

24Abraham had now reached a ripe old age, and the LORD had blessed him in every way.

2Abraham said to the senior servant of his household, who had charge of all his possessions: "Put your hand under my thigh,

3and I will make you swear by the LORD, the God of heaven and the God of earth, that you will not procure a wife for my son from the daughters of the Canaanites among whom I live,

4but that you will go to my own land and to my kindred to get a wife for my son Isaac."

5The servant asked him: "What if the woman is unwilling to follow me to this land? Should I then take your son back to the land from which you migrated?"

6"Never take my son back there for any reason," Abraham told him.

7"The LORD, the God of heaven, who took me from my father's house and the land of my kin, and who confirmed by oath the promise he then made to me, 'I will give this land to your descendants'--he will send his messenger before you, and you will obtain a wife for my son there.

8If the woman is unwilling to follow you, you will be released from this oath. But never take my son back there!"

9So the servant put his hand under the thigh of his master Abraham and swore to him in this undertaking.

10The servant then took ten of his master's camels, and bearing all kinds of gifts from his master, he made his way to the city of Nahor in Aram Naharaim.

11Near evening, at the time when women go out to draw water, he made the camels kneel by the well outside the city.

12Then he prayed: "LORD, God of my master Abraham, let it turn out favorably for me today and thus deal graciously with my master Abraham.

13While I stand here at the spring and the daughters of the townsmen are coming out to draw water,

14if I say to a girl, 'Please lower your jug, that I may drink,' and she answers, 'Take a drink, and let me give water to your camels, too,' let her be the one whom you have decided upon for your servant Isaac. In this way I shall know that you have dealt graciously with my master."

15He had scarcely finished these words when Rebekah (who was born to Bethuel, son of Milcah, the wife of Abraham's brother Nahor) came out with a jug on her shoulder.

16The girl was very beautiful, a virgin, untouched by man. She went down to the spring and filled her jug. As she came up,

17the servant ran toward her and said, "Please give me a sip of water from your jug."

18"Take a drink, sir," she replied, and quickly lowering the jug onto her hand, she gave him a drink.

19When she had let him drink his fill, she said, "I will draw water for your camels, too, until they have drunk their fill."

20With that, she quickly emptied her jug into the drinking trough and ran back to the well to draw more water, until she had drawn enough for all the camels.

21The man watched her the whole time, silently waiting to learn whether or not the LORD had made his errand successful.

22When the camels had finished drinking, the man took out a gold ring weighing half a shekel, which he fastened on her nose, and two gold bracelets weighing ten shekels, which he put on her wrists.

23Then he asked her: "Whose daughter are you? Tell me, please. And is there room in your father's house for us to spend the night?"

24She answered: "I am the daughter of Bethuel the son of Milcah, whom she bore to Nahor.

25There is plenty of straw and fodder at our place," she added, "and room to spend the night."

26The man then bowed down in worship to the LORD,

27saying: "Blessed be the LORD, the God of my master Abraham, who has not let his constant kindness toward my master fail. As for myself also, the LORD has led me straight to the house of my master's brother."

28Then the girl ran off and told her mother's household about it.

29Now Rebekah had a brother named Laban.

30As soon as he saw the ring and the bracelets on his sister Rebekah and heard her words about what the man had said to her, Laban rushed outside to the man at the spring. When he reached him, he was still standing by the camels at the spring.

31So he said to him: "Come, blessed of the LORD! Why are you staying outside when I have made the house ready for you, as well as a place for the camels?"

32The man then went inside; and while the camels were being unloaded and provided with straw and fodder, water was brought to bathe his feet and the feet of the men who were with him.

33But when the table was set for him, he said, "I will not eat until I have told my tale." "Do so," they replied.

34"I am Abraham's servant," he began.

35"The LORD has blessed my master so abundantly that he has become a wealthy man; he has given him flocks and herds, silver and gold, male and female slaves, and camels and asses.

36My master's wife Sarah bore a son to my master in her old age, and he has given him everything he owns.

37My master put me under oath, saying: 'You shall not procure a wife for my son among the daughters of the Canaanites in whose land I live;

38instead, you shall go to my father's house, to my own relatives, to get a wife for my son.'

39When I asked my master, 'What if the woman will not follow me?,'

40he replied: 'The LORD, in whose presence I have always walked, will send his messenger with you and make your errand successful, and so you will get a wife for my son from my own kindred of my father's house.

41Then you shall be released from my ban. If you visit my kindred and they refuse you, then, too, you shall be released from my ban.'

42"When I came to the spring today, I prayed: 'LORD, God of my master Abraham, may it be your will to make successful the errand I am engaged on!

43While I stand here at the spring, if I say to a young woman who comes out to draw water, Please give me a little water from your jug,

44and she answers, Not only may you have a drink, but I will give water to your camels, too--let her be the woman whom the LORD has decided upon for my master's son.'

45"I had scarcely finished saying this prayer to myself when Rebekah came out with a jug on her shoulder. After she went down to the spring and drew water, I said to her, 'Please let me have a drink.'

46She quickly lowered the jug she was carrying and said, 'Take a drink, and let me bring water for your camels, too.' So I drank, and she watered the camels also.

47When I asked her, 'Whose daughter are you?' she answered, 'The daughter of Bethuel, son of Nahor, borne to Nahor by Milcah.' So I put the ring on her nose and the bracelets on her wrists.

48Then I bowed down in worship to the LORD, blessing the LORD, the God of my master Abraham, who had led me on the right road to obtain the daughter of my master's kinsman for his son.

49If, therefore, you have in mind to show true loyalty to my master, let me know; but if not, let me know that, too. I can then proceed accordingly."

50Laban and his household said in reply: "This thing comes from the LORD; we can say nothing to you either for or against it.

51Here is Rebekah, ready for you; take her with you, that she may become the wife of your master's son, as the LORD has said."

52When Abraham's servant heard their answer, he bowed to the ground before the LORD.

53Then he brought out objects of silver and gold and articles of clothing and presented them to Rebekah; he also gave costly presents to her brother and mother.

54After he and the men with him had eaten and drunk, they spent the night there. When they were up the next morning, he said, "Give me leave to return to my master."

55Her brother and mother replied, "Let the girl stay with us a short while, say ten days; after that she may go."

56But he said to them, "Do not detain me, now that the LORD has made my errand successful; let me go back to my master."

57They answered, "Let us call the girl and see what she herself has to say about it."

58So they called Rebekah and asked her, "Do you wish to go with this man?" She answered, "I do."

59At this they allowed their sister Rebekah and her nurse to take leave, along with Abraham's servant and his men.

60Invoking a blessing on Rebekah, they said: "Sister, may you grow into thousands of myriads; And may your descendants gain possession of the gates of their enemies!"

61Then Rebekah and her maids started out; they mounted their camels and followed the man. So the servant took Rebekah and went on his way.

62Meanwhile Isaac had gone from Beer-lahai-roi and was living in the region of the Negeb.

63One day toward evening he went out. . . in the field, and as he looked around, he noticed that camels were approaching.

64Rebekah, too, was looking about, and when she saw him, she alighted from her camel

65and asked the servant, "Who is the man out there, walking through the fields toward us?" "That is my master," replied the servant. Then she covered herself with her veil.

66The servant recounted to Isaac all the things he had done.

67Then Isaac took Rebekah into his tent; he married her, and thus she became his wife. In his love for her Isaac found solace after the death of his mother Sarah.

25Abraham married another wife, whose name was Keturah.

2She bore him Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah.

3Jokshan became the father of Sheba and Dedan. The descendants of Dedan were the Asshurim, the Letushim, and the Leummim.

4The descendants of Midian were Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, Abida, and Eldaah. All of these were descendants of Keturah.

5Abraham deeded everything that he owned to his son Isaac.

6To his sons by concubinage, however, he made grants while he was still living, as he sent them away eastward, to the land of Kedem, away from his son Isaac.

7The whole span of Abraham's life was one hundred and seventy-five years.

8Then he breathed his last, dying at a ripe old age, grown old after a full life; and he was taken to his kinsmen.

9His sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the cave of Machpelah, in the field of Ephron, son of Zohar the Hittite, which faces Mamre,

10the field that Abraham had bought from the Hittites; there he was buried next to his wife Sarah.

11After the death of Abraham, God blessed his son Isaac, who made his home near Beer-lahai-roi.

12These are the descendants of Abraham's son Ishmael, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah's slave, bore to Abraham.

13These are the names of Ishmael's sons, listed in the order of their birth: Nebaioth (Ishmael's firstborn), Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam,

14Mishma, Dumah, Massa,

15Hadad, Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah.

16These are the sons of Ishmael, their names by their villages and encampments; twelve chieftains of as many tribal groups.

17The span of Ishmael's life was one hundred and thirty-seven years. After he had breathed his last and died, he was taken to his kinsmen.

18The Ishmaelites ranged from Havilah-by-Shur, which is on the border of Egypt, all the way to Asshur; and each of them pitched camp in opposition to his various kinsmen.

19This is the family history of Isaac, son of Abraham; Abraham had begotten Isaac.

20Isaac was forty years old when he married Rebekah, the daughter of Bethuel the Aramean of Paddan-aram and the sister of Laban the Aramean.

21Isaac entreated the LORD on behalf of his wife, since she was sterile. The LORD heard his entreaty, and Rebekah became pregnant.

22But the children in her womb jostled each other so much that she exclaimed, "If this is to be so, what good will it do me!" She went to consult the LORD,

23and he answered her: "Two nations are in your womb, two peoples are quarreling while still within you; But one shall surpass the other, and the older shall serve the younger."

24When the time of her delivery came, there were twins in her womb.

25The first to emerge was reddish, and his whole body was like a hairy mantle; so they named him Esau.

26His brother came out next, gripping Esau's heel; so they named him Jacob. Isaac was sixty years old when they were born.

27As the boys grew up, Esau became a skillful hunter, a man who lived in the open; whereas Jacob was a simple man, who kept to his tents.

28Isaac preferred Esau, because he was fond of game; but Rebekah preferred Jacob.

29Once, when Jacob was cooking a stew, Esau came in from the open, famished.

30He said to Jacob, "Let me gulp down some of that red stuff; I'm starving." (That is why he was called Edom.)

31But Jacob replied, "First give me your birthright in exchange for it."

32"Look," said Esau, "I'm on the point of dying. What good will any birthright do me?"

33But Jacob insisted, "Swear to me first!" So he sold Jacob his birthright under oath.

34Jacob then gave him some bread and the lentil stew; and Esau ate, drank, got up, and went his way. Esau cared little for his birthright.

26There was a famine in the land (distinct from the earlier one that had occurred in the days of Abraham), and Isaac went down to Abimelech, king of the Philistines in Gerar.

2The LORD appeared to him and said: "Do not go down to Egypt, but continue to camp wherever in this land I tell you.

3Stay in this land, and I will be with you and bless you; for to you and your descendants I will give all these lands, in fulfillment of the oath that I swore to your father Abraham.

4I will make your descendants as numerous as the stars in the sky and give them all these lands, and in your descendants all the nations of the earth shall find blessing--

5this because Abraham obeyed me, keeping my mandate (my commandments, my ordinances, and my instructions)."

6So Isaac settled in Gerar.

7When the men of the place asked questions about his wife, he answered, "She is my sister." He was afraid, if he called her his wife, the men of the place would kill him on account of Rebekah, since she was very beautiful.

8But when he had been there for a long time, Abimelech, king of the Philistines, happened to look out of a window and was surprised to see Isaac fondling his wife Rebekah.

9He called for Isaac and said: "She must certainly be your wife! How could you have said, 'She is my sister'?" Isaac replied, "I thought I might lose my life on her account."

10"How could you do this to us!" exclaimed Abimelech. "It would have taken very little for one of the men to lie with your wife, and you would have thus brought guilt upon us!"

11Abimelech therefore gave this warning to all his men: "Anyone who molests this man or his wife shall forthwith be put to death."

12Isaac sowed a crop in that region and reaped a hundredfold the same year. Since the LORD blessed him,

13he became richer and richer all the time, until he was very wealthy indeed.

14He acquired such flocks and herds, and so many work animals, that the Philistines became envious of him.

15(The Philistines had stopped up and filled with dirt all the wells that his father's servants had dug back in the days of his father Abraham.)

16So Abimelech said to Isaac, "Go away from us; you have become far too numerous for us."

17Isaac left there and made the Wadi Gerar his regular campsite.

18(Isaac reopened the wells which his father's servants had dug back in the days of his father Abraham and which the Philistines had stopped up after Abraham's death; he gave them the same names that his father had given them.)

19But when Isaac's servants dug in the wadi and reached spring water in their well,

20the shepherds of Gerar quarreled with Isaac's servants, saying, "The water belongs to us!" So the well was called Esek, because they had challenged him there.

21Then they dug another well, and they quarreled over that one too; so it was called Sitnah.

22When he had moved on from there, he dug still another well; but over this one they did not quarrel. It was called Rehoboth, because he said, "The LORD has now given us ample room, and we shall flourish in the land."

23From there Isaac went up to Beer-sheba.

24The same night the LORD appeared to him and said: "I am the God of your father Abraham. You have no need to fear, since I am with you. I will bless you and multiply your descendants for the sake of my servant Abraham."

25So he built an altar there and invoked the LORD by name. After he had pitched his tent there, his servants began to dig a well nearby.

26Abimelech had meanwhile come to him from Gerar, accompanied by Ahuzzath, his councilor, and Phicol, the general of his army.

27Isaac asked them, "Why have you come to me, seeing that you hate me and have driven me away from you?"

28They answered: "We are convinced that the LORD is with you, so we propose that there be a sworn agreement between our two sides--between you and us. Let us make a pact with you:

29you shall not act unkindly toward us, just as we have not molested you, but have always acted kindly toward you and have let you depart in peace. Henceforth, 'The LORD'S blessing be upon you!'"

30Isaac then made a feast for them, and they ate and drank.

31Early the next morning they exchanged oaths. Then Isaac bade them farewell, and they departed from him in peace.

32That same day Isaac's servants came and brought him news about the well they had been digging; they told him, "We have reached water!"

33He called it Shibah; hence the name of the city, Beer-sheba, to this day.

34When Esau was forty years old, he married Judith, daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Basemath, daughter of Elon the Hivite.

35But they became a source of embitterment to Isaac and Rebekah.

27When Isaac was so old that his eyesight had failed him, he called his older son Esau and said to him, "Son!" "Yes, father!" he replied.

2Isaac then said, "As you can see, I am so old that I may now die at any time.

3Take your gear, therefore--your quiver and bow--and go out into the country to hunt some game for me.

4With your catch prepare an appetizing dish for me, such as I like, and bring it to me to eat, so that I may give you my special blessing before I die."

5Rebekah had been listening while Isaac was speaking to his son Esau. So when Esau went out into the country to hunt some game for his father,

6Rebekah said to her son Jacob, "Listen! I overheard your father tell your brother Esau,

7'Bring me some game and with it prepare an appetizing dish for me to eat, that I may give you my blessing with the LORD'S approval before I die.'

8Now, son, listen carefully to what I tell you.

9Go to the flock and get me two choice kids. With these I will prepare an appetizing dish for your father, such as he likes.

10Then bring it to your father to eat, that he may bless you before he dies."

11"But my brother Esau is a hairy man," said Jacob to his mother Rebekah, "and I am smooth-skinned!

12Suppose my father feels me? He will think I am making sport of him, and I shall bring on myself a curse instead of a blessing."

13His mother, however, replied: "Let any curse against you, son, fall on me! Just do as I say. Go and get me the kids."

14So Jacob went and got them and brought them to his mother; and with them she prepared an appetizing dish, such as his father liked.

15Rebekah then took the best clothes of her older son Esau that she had in the house, and gave them to her younger son Jacob to wear;

16and with the skins of the kids she covered up his hands and the hairless parts of his neck.

17Then she handed her son Jacob the appetizing dish and the bread she had prepared.

18Bringing them to his father, Jacob said, "Father!" "Yes?" replied Isaac. "Which of my sons are you?"

19Jacob answered his father: "I am Esau, your first-born. I did as you told me. Please sit up and eat some of my game, so that you may give me your special blessing."

20But Isaac asked, "How did you succeed so quickly, son?" He answered, "The LORD, your God, let things turn out well with me."

21Isaac then said to Jacob, "Come closer, son, that I may feel you, to learn whether you really are my son Esau or not."

22So Jacob moved up closer to his father. When Isaac felt him, he said, "Although the voice is Jacob's, the hands are Esau's."

23(He failed to identify him because his hands were hairy, like those of his brother Esau; so in the end he gave him his blessing.)

24Again he asked him, "Are you really my son Esau?" "Certainly," he replied.

25Then Isaac said, "Serve me your game, son, that I may eat of it and then give you my blessing." Jacob served it to him, and Isaac ate; he brought him wine, and he drank.

26Finally his father Isaac said to him, "Come closer, son, and kiss me."

27As Jacob went up and kissed him, Isaac smelled the fragrance of his clothes. With that, he blessed him, saying, "Ah, the fragrance of my son is like the fragrance of a field that the LORD has blessed!

28"May God give to you of the dew of the heavens And of the fertility of the earth abundance of grain and wine.

29"Let peoples serve you, and nations pay you homage; Be master of your brothers, and may your mother's sons bow down to you. Cursed be those who curse you, and blessed be those who bless you."

30Jacob had scarcely left his father, just after Isaac had finished blessing him, when his brother Esau came back from his hunt.

31Then he too prepared an appetizing dish with his game, and bringing it to his father, he said, "Please, father, eat some of your son's game, that you may then give me your special blessing."

32"Who are you?" his father Isaac asked him. "I am Esau," he replied, "your first-born son."

33With that, Isaac was seized with a fit of uncontrollable trembling. "Who was it, then," he asked, "that hunted game and brought it to me? I finished eating it just before you came, and I blessed him. Now he must remain blessed!"

34On hearing his father's words, Esau burst into loud, bitter sobbing. "Father, bless me too!" he begged.

35When Isaac explained, "Your brother came here by a ruse and carried off your blessing,"

36Esau exclaimed, "He has been well named Jacob! He has now supplanted me twice! First he took away my birthright, and now he has taken away my blessing." Then he pleaded, "Haven't you saved a blessing for me?"

37Isaac replied: "I have already appointed him your master, and I have assigned to him all his kinsmen as his slaves; besides, I have enriched him with grain and wine. What then can I do for you, son?"

38But Esau urged his father, "Have you only that one blessing, father? Bless me too!" Isaac, however, made no reply; and Esau wept aloud.

39Finally Isaac spoke again and said to him: "Ah, far from the fertile earth shall be your dwelling; far from the dew of the heavens above!

40"By your sword you shall live, and your brother you shall serve; But when you become restive, you shall throw off his yoke from your neck."

41Esau bore Jacob a grudge because of the blessing his father had given him. He said to himself, "When the time of mourning for my father comes, I will kill my brother Jacob."

42When Rebekah got news of what her older son Esau had in mind, she called her younger son Jacob and said to him: "Listen! Your brother Esau intends to settle accounts with you by killing you.

43Therefore, son, do what I tell you: flee at once to my brother Laban in Haran,

44and stay with him a while until your brother's fury subsides

45(until your brother's anger against you subsides) and he forgets what you did to him. Then I will send for you and bring you back. Must I lose both of you in a single day?"

46Rebekah said to Isaac: "I am disgusted with life because of the Hittite women. If Jacob also should marry a Hittite woman, a native of the land, like these women, what good would life be to me?"

28Isaac therefore called Jacob, greeted him with a blessing, and charged him: "You shall not marry a Canaanite woman!

2Go now to Paddan-aram, to the home of your mother's father Bethuel, and there choose a wife for yourself from among the daughters of your uncle Laban.

3May God Almighty bless you and make you fertile, multiply you that you may become an assembly of peoples.

4May he extend to you and your descendants the blessing he gave to Abraham, so that you may gain possession of the land where you are staying, which he assigned to Abraham."

5Then Isaac sent Jacob on his way; he went to Paddan-aram, to Laban, son of Bethuel the Aramean, and brother of Rebekah, the mother of Jacob and Esau.

6Esau noted that Isaac had blessed Jacob when he sent him to Paddan-aram to get himself a wife there, charging him, as he gave him his blessing, not to marry a Canaanite woman,

7and that Jacob had obeyed his father and mother and gone to Paddan-aram.

8Esau realized how displeasing the Canaanite women were to his father Isaac,

9so he went to Ishmael, and in addition to the wives he had, married Mahalath, the daughter of Abraham's son Ishmael and sister of Nebaioth.

10Jacob departed from Beer-sheba and proceeded toward Haran.

11When he came upon a certain shrine, as the sun had already set, he stopped there for the night. Taking one of the stones at the shrine, he put it under his head and lay down to sleep at that spot.

12Then he had a dream: a stairway rested on the ground, with its top reaching to the heavens; and God's messengers were going up and down on it.

13And there was the LORD standing beside him and saying: "I, the LORD, am the God of your forefather Abraham and the God of Isaac; the land on which you are lying I will give to you and your descendants.

14These shall be as plentiful as the dust of the earth, and through them you shall spread out east and west, north and south. In you and your descendants all the nations of the earth shall find blessing.

15Know that I am with you; I will protect you wherever you go, and bring you back to this land. I will never leave you until I have done what I promised you."

16When Jacob awoke from his sleep, he exclaimed, "Truly, the LORD is in this spot, although I did not know it!"

17In solemn wonder he cried out: "How awesome is this shrine! This is nothing else but an abode of God, and that is the gateway to heaven!"

18Early the next morning Jacob took the stone that he had put under his head, set it up as a memorial stone, and poured oil on top of it.

19He called that site Bethel, whereas the former name of the town had been Luz.

20Jacob then made this vow: "If God remains with me, to protect me on this journey I am making and to give me enough bread to eat and clothing to wear,

21and I come back safe to my father's house, the LORD shall be my God.

22This stone that I have set up as a memorial stone shall be God's abode. Of everything you give me, I will faithfully return a tenth part to you."

29After Jacob resumed his journey, he came to the land of the Easterners.

2Looking about, he saw a well in the open country, with three droves of sheep huddled near it, for droves were watered from that well. A large stone covered the mouth of the well.

3Only when all the shepherds were assembled there could they roll the stone away from the mouth of the well and water the flocks. Then they would put the stone back again over the mouth of the well.

4Jacob said to them, "Friends, where are you from?" "We are from Haran," they replied.

5Then he asked them, "Do you know Laban, son of Nahor?" "We do," they answered.

6He inquired further, "Is he well?" "He is," they answered; "and here comes his daughter Rachel with his flock."

7Then he said: "There is still much daylight left; it is hardly the time to bring the animals home. Why don't you water the flocks now, and then continue pasturing them?"

8"We cannot," they replied, "until all the shepherds are here to roll the stone away from the mouth of the well; only then can we water the flocks."

9While he was still talking with them, Rachel arrived with her father's sheep; she was the one who tended them.

10As soon as Jacob saw Rachel, the daughter of his uncle Laban, with the sheep of his uncle Laban, he went up, rolled the stone away from the mouth of the well, and watered his uncle's sheep.

11Then Jacob kissed Rachel and burst into tears.

12He told her that he was her father's relative, Rebekah's son, and she ran to tell her father.

13When Laban heard the news about his sister's son Jacob, he hurried out to meet him. After embracing and kissing him, he brought him to his house. Jacob then recounted to Laban all that had happened,

14and Laban said to him, "You are indeed my flesh and blood." After Jacob had stayed with him a full month,

15Laban said to him: "Should you serve me for nothing just because you are a relative of mine? Tell me what your wages should be."

16Now Laban had two daughters; the older was called Leah, the younger Rachel.

17Leah had lovely eyes, but Rachel was well formed and beautiful.

18Since Jacob had fallen in love with Rachel, he answered Laban, "I will serve you seven years for your younger daughter Rachel."

19Laban replied, "I prefer to give her to you rather than to an outsider. Stay with me."

20So Jacob served seven years for Rachel, yet they seemed to him but a few days because of his love for her.

21Then Jacob said to Laban, "Give me my wife, that I may consummate my marriage with her, for my term is now completed."

22So Laban invited all the local inhabitants and gave a feast.

23At nightfall he took his daughter Leah and brought her to Jacob, and Jacob consummated the marriage with her.

24(Laban assigned his slave girl Zilpah to his daughter Leah as her maidservant.)

25In the morning Jacob was amazed: it was Leah! So he cried out to Laban: "How could you do this to me! Was it not for Rachel that I served you? Why did you dupe me?"

26"It is not the custom in our country," Laban replied, "to marry off a younger daughter before an older one.

27Finish the bridal week for this one, and then I will give you the other too, in return for another seven years of service with me."

28Jacob agreed. He finished the bridal week for Leah, and then Laban gave him his daughter Rachel in marriage.

29(Laban assigned his slave girl Bilhah to his daughter Rachel as her maidservant.)

30Jacob then consummated his marriage with Rachel also, and he loved her more than Leah. Thus he remained in Laban's service another seven years.

31When the LORD saw that Leah was unloved, he made her fruitful, while Rachel remained barren.

32Leah conceived and bore a son, and she named him Reuben; for she said, "It means, 'The LORD saw my misery; now my husband will love me.'"

33She conceived again and bore a son, and said, "It means, 'The LORD heard that I was unloved,' and therefore he has given me this one also"; so she named him Simeon.

34Again she conceived and bore a son, and she said, "Now at last my husband will become attached to me, since I have now borne him three sons"; that is why she named him Levi.

35Once more she conceived and bore a son, and she said, "This time I will give grateful praise to the LORD"; therefore she named him Judah. Then she stopped bearing children.

30When Rachel saw that she failed to bear children to Jacob, she became envious of her sister. She said to Jacob, "Give me children or I shall die!"

2In anger Jacob retorted, "Can I take the place of God, who has denied you the fruit of the womb?"

3She replied, "Here is my maidservant Bilhah. Have intercourse with her, and let her give birth on my knees, so that I too may have offspring, at least through her."

4So she gave him her maidservant Bilhah as a consort, and Jacob had intercourse with her.

5When Bilhah conceived and bore a son,

6Rachel said, "God has vindicated me; indeed he has heeded my plea and given me a son." Therefore she named him Dan.

7Rachel's maidservant Bilhah conceived again and bore a second son,

8and Rachel said, "I engaged in a fateful struggle with my sister, and I prevailed." So she named him Naphtali.

9When Leah saw that she had ceased to bear children, she gave her maidservant Zilpah to Jacob as a consort.

10So Jacob had intercourse with Zilpah, and she conceived and bore a son.

11Leah then said, "What good luck!" So she named him Gad.

12Then Leah's maidservant Zilpah bore a second son to Jacob;

13and Leah said, "What good fortune!"--meaning, "Women call me fortunate." So she named him Asher.

14One day, during the wheat harvest, when Reuben was out in the field, he came upon some mandrakes which he brought home to his mother Leah. Rachel asked Leah, "Please let me have some of your son's mandrakes."

15Leah replied, "Was it not enough for you to take away my husband, that you must now take my son's mandrakes too?" "Very well, then!" Rachel answered. "In exchange for your son's mandrakes, Jacob may lie with you tonight."

16That evening, when Jacob came home from the fields, Leah went out to meet him. "You are now to come in with me," she told him, "because I have paid for you with my son's mandrakes." So that night he slept with her,

17and God heard her prayer; she conceived and bore a fifth son to Jacob.

18Leah then said, "God has given me my reward for having let my husband have my maidservant"; so she named him Issachar.

19Leah conceived again and bore a sixth son to Jacob;

20and she said, "God has brought me a precious gift. This time my husband will offer me presents, now that I have borne him six sons"; so she named him Zebulun.

21Finally, she gave birth to a daughter, and she named her Dinah.

22Then God remembered Rachel; he heard her prayer and made her fruitful.

23She conceived and bore a son, and she said, "God has removed my disgrace."

24So she named him Joseph, meaning, "May the LORD add another son to this one for me!"

25After Rachel gave birth to Joseph, Jacob said to Laban: "Give me leave to go to my homeland.

26Let me have my wives, for whom I served you, and my children, too, that I may depart. You know very well the service that I have rendered you."

27Laban answered him: "If you will please. . . . "I have learned through divination that it is because of you that God has blessed me.

28So," he continued, "state what wages you want from me, and I will pay them."

29Jacob replied: "You know what work I did for you and how well your livestock fared under my care;

30the little you had before I came has grown into very much, since the LORD'S blessings came upon you in my company. Therefore I should now do something for my own household as well."

31"What should I pay you?" Laban asked. Jacob answered: "You do not have to pay me anything outright. I will again pasture and tend your flock, if you do this one thing for me:

32go through your whole flock today and remove from it every dark animal among the sheep and every spotted or speckled one among the goats. Only such animals shall be my wages.

33In the future, whenever you check on these wages of mine, let my honesty testify against me: any animal in my possession that is not a speckled or spotted goat, or a dark sheep, got there by theft!"

34"Very well," agreed Laban. "Let it be as you say."

35That same day Laban removed the streaked and spotted he-goats and all the speckled and spotted she-goats, all those with some white on them, as well as the fully dark-colored sheep; these he left. . . in charge of his sons.

36Then he put a three days' journey between himself and Jacob, while Jacob continued to pasture the rest of Laban's flock.

37Jacob, however, got some fresh shoots of poplar, almond and plane trees, and he made white stripes in them by peeling off the bark down to the white core of the shoots.

38The rods that he had thus peeled he then set upright in the watering troughs, so that they would be in front of the animals that drank from the troughs. When the animals were in heat as they came to drink,

39the goats mated by the rods, and so they brought forth streaked, speckled and spotted kids.

40The sheep, on the other hand, Jacob kept apart, and he set these animals to face the streaked or fully dark-colored animals of Laban. Thus he produced special flocks of his own, which he did not put with Laban's flock.

41Moreover, whenever the hardier animals were in heat, Jacob would set the rods in the troughs in full view of these animals, so that they mated by the rods;

42but with the weaker animals he would not put the rods there. So the feeble animals would go to Laban, but the sturdy ones to Jacob.

43Thus the man grew increasingly prosperous, and he came to own not only large flocks but also male and female servants and camels and asses.

31Jacob learned that Laban's sons were saying, "Jacob has taken everything that belonged to our father, and he has accumulated all this wealth of his by using our father's property."

2Jacob perceived, too, that Laban's attitude toward him was not what it had previously been.

3Then the LORD said to Jacob, "Return to the land of your fathers, where you were born, and I will be with you."

4So Jacob sent for Rachel and Leah to meet him where he was in the field with his flock.

5There he said to them: "I have noticed that your father's attitude toward me is not as it was in the past; but the God of my father has been with me.

6You well know what effort I put into serving your father;

7yet your father cheated me and changed my wages time after time. God, however, did not let him do me any harm.

8Whenever your father said, 'The speckled animals shall be your wages,' the entire flock would bear speckled young; whenever he said, 'The streaked animals shall be your wages,' the entire flock would bear streaked young.

9Thus God reclaimed your father's livestock and gave it to me.

10Once, in the breeding season, I had a dream in which I saw mating he-goats that were streaked, speckled and mottled.

11In the dream God's messenger called to me, 'Jacob!' 'Here!' I replied.

12Then he said: 'Note well. All the he-goats in the flock, as they mate, are streaked, speckled and mottled, for I have seen all the things that Laban has been doing to you.

13I am the God who appeared to you in Bethel, where you anointed a memorial stone and made a vow to me. Up, then! Leave this land and return to the land of your birth.'"

14Rachel and Leah answered him: "Have we still an heir's portion in our father's house?

15Are we not regarded by him as outsiders? He not only sold us; he has even used up the money that he got for us!

16All the wealth that God reclaimed from our father really belongs to us and our children. Therefore, do just as God has told you."

17Jacob proceeded to put his children and wives on camels,

18and he drove off with all his livestock and all the property he had acquired in Paddan-aram, to go to his father Isaac in the land of Canaan.

19Now Laban had gone away to shear his sheep, and Rachel had meanwhile appropriated her father's household idols.

20Jacob had hoodwinked Laban the Aramean by not telling him of his intended flight.

21Thus he made his escape with all that he had. Once he was across the Euphrates, he headed for the highlands of Gilead.

22On the third day, word came to Laban that Jacob had fled.

23Taking his kinsmen with him, he pursued him for seven days until he caught up with him in the hill country of Gilead.

24But that night God appeared to Laban the Aramean in a dream and warned him, "Take care not to threaten Jacob with any harm!"

25When Laban overtook Jacob, Jacob's tents were pitched in the highlands; Laban also pitched his tents there, on Mount Gilead.

26"What do you mean," Laban demanded of Jacob, "by hoodwinking me and carrying off my daughters like war captives?

27Why did you dupe me by stealing away secretly? You should have told me, and I would have sent you off with merry singing to the sound of tambourines and harps.

28You did not even allow me a parting kiss to my daughters and grandchildren! What you have now done is a senseless thing.

29I have it in my power to harm all of you; but last night the God of your father said to me, 'Take care not to threaten Jacob with any harm!'

30Granted that you had to leave because you were desperately homesick for your father's house, why did you steal my gods?"

31"I was frightened," Jacob replied to Laban, "at the thought that you might take your daughters away from me by force.

32But as for your gods, the one you find them with shall not remain alive! If, with my kinsmen looking on, you identify anything here as belonging to you, take it." Jacob, of course, had no idea that Rachel had stolen the idols.

33Laban then went in and searched Jacob's tent and Leah's tent, as well as the tents of the two maidservants; but he did not find the idols. Leaving Leah's tent, he went into Rachel's.

34Now Rachel had taken the idols, put them inside a camel cushion, and seated herself upon them. When Laban had rummaged through the rest of her tent without finding them,

35Rachel said to her father, "Let not my lord feel offended that I cannot rise in your presence; a woman's period is upon me." So, despite his search, he did not find his idols.

36Jacob, now enraged, upbraided Laban. "What crime or offense have I committed," he demanded, "that you should hound me so fiercely?

37Now that you have ransacked all my things, have you found a single object taken from your belongings? If so, produce it here before your kinsmen and mine, and let them decide between us two.

38"In the twenty years that I was under you, no ewe or she-goat of yours ever miscarried, and I have never feasted on a ram of your flock.

39I never brought you an animal torn by wild beasts; I made good the loss myself. You held me responsible for anything stolen by day or night.

40How often the scorching heat ravaged me by day, and the frost by night, while sleep fled from my eyes!

41Of the twenty years that I have now spent in your household, I slaved fourteen years for your two daughters and six years for your flock, while you changed my wages time after time.

42If my ancestral God, the God of Abraham and the Awesome One of Isaac, had not been on my side, you would now have sent me away empty-handed. But God saw my plight and the fruits of my toil, and last night he gave judgment."

43Laban replied to Jacob: "The women are mine, their children are mine, and the flocks are mine; everything you see belongs to me. But since these women are my daughters, I will now do something for them and for the children they have borne.

44Come, then, we will make a pact, you and I; the LORD shall be a witness between us."

45Then Jacob took a stone and set it up as a memorial stone.

46Jacob said to his kinsmen, "Gather some stones." So they got some stones and made a mound; and they had a meal there at the mound.

47Laban called it Jegar-sahadutha, but Jacob named it Galeed.

48"This mound," said Laban, "shall be a witness from now on between you and me." That is why it was named Galeed--

49and also Mizpah, for he said: "May the LORD keep watch between you and me when we are out of each other's sight.

50If you mistreat my daughters, or take other wives besides my daughters, remember that even though no one else is about, God will be witness between you and me."

51Laban said further to Jacob: "Here is this mound, and here is the memorial stone that I have set up between you and me.

52This mound shall be witness, and this memorial stone shall be witness, that, with hostile intent, neither may I pass beyond this mound into your territory, nor may you pass beyond it into mine.

53May the God of Abraham and the god of Nahor (their ancestral deities) maintain justice between us!" Jacob took the oath by the Awesome One of Isaac.

54He then offered a sacrifice on the mountain and invited his kinsmen to share in the meal. When they had eaten, they passed the night on the mountain.

32Early the next morning, Laban kissed his grandchildren and his daughters goodbye; then he set out on his journey back home,

2while Jacob continued on his own way. Then God's messengers encountered Jacob.

3When he saw them he said, "This is God's encampment." So he named that place Mahanaim.

4Jacob sent messengers ahead to his brother Esau in the land of Seir, the country of Edom,

5with this message: "Thus shall you say to my lord Esau: 'Your servant Jacob speaks as follows: I have been staying with Laban and have been detained there until now.

6I own cattle, asses and sheep, as well as male and female servants. I am sending my lord this information in the hope of gaining your favor.'"

7When the messengers returned to Jacob, they said, "We reached your brother Esau. He is now coming to meet you, accompanied by four hundred men."

8Jacob was very much frightened. In his anxiety, he divided the people who were with him, as well as his flocks, herds and camels, into two camps.

9"If Esau should attack and overwhelm one camp," he reasoned, "the remaining camp may still survive."

10Then he prayed: "O God of my father Abraham and God of my father Isaac! You told me, O LORD, 'Go back to the land of your birth, and I will be good to you.'

11I am unworthy of all the acts of kindness that you have loyally performed for your servant: although I crossed the Jordan here with nothing but my staff, I have now grown into two companies.

12Save me, I pray, from the hand of my brother Esau! Otherwise I fear that when he comes he will strike me down and slay the mothers and children.

13You yourself said, 'I will be very good to you, and I will make your descendants like the sands of the sea, which are too numerous to count.'"

14After passing the night there, Jacob selected from what he had with him the following presents for his brother Esau:

15two hundred she-goats and twenty he-goats; two hundred ewes and twenty rams;

16thirty milch camels and their young; forty cows and ten bulls; twenty she-asses and ten he-asses.

17He put these animals in charge of his servants, in separate droves, and he told the servants, "Go on ahead of me, but keep a space between one drove and the next."

18To the servant in the lead he gave this instruction: "When my brother Esau meets you, he may ask you, 'Whose man are you? Where are you going? To whom do these animals ahead of you belong?'

19Then you shall answer, 'They belong to your brother Jacob, but they have been sent as a gift to my lord Esau; and Jacob himself is right behind us.'"

20He gave similar instructions to the second servant and the third and to all the others who followed behind the droves, namely: "Thus and thus shall you say to Esau, when you reach him;

21and be sure to add, 'Your servant Jacob is right behind us.'" For Jacob reasoned, "If I first appease him with gifts that precede me, then later, when I face him, perhaps he will forgive me."

22So the gifts went on ahead of him, while he stayed that night in the camp.

23In the course of that night, however, Jacob arose, took his two wives, with the two maidservants and his eleven children, and crossed the ford of the Jabbok.

24After he had taken them across the stream and had brought over all his possessions,

25Jacob was left there alone. Then some man wrestled with him until the break of dawn.

26When the man saw that he could not prevail over him, he struck Jacob's hip at its socket, so that the hip socket was wrenched as they wrestled.

27The man then said, "Let me go, for it is daybreak." But Jacob said, "I will not let you go until you bless me."

28"What is your name?" the man asked. He answered, "Jacob."

29Then the man said, "You shall no longer be spoken of as Jacob, but as Israel, because you have contended with divine and human beings and have prevailed."

30Jacob then asked him, "Do tell me your name, please." He answered, "Why should you want to know my name?" With that, he bade him farewell.

31Jacob named the place Peniel, "Because I have seen God face to face," he said, "yet my life has been spared."

32At sunrise, as he left Penuel, Jacob limped along because of his hip.

33That is why, to this day, the Israelites do not eat the sciatic muscle that is on the hip socket, inasmuch as Jacob's hip socket was struck at the sciatic muscle.

33Jacob looked up and saw Esau coming, accompanied by four hundred men. So he divided his children among Leah, Rachel and the two maidservants,

2putting the maids and their children first, Leah and her children next, and Rachel and Joseph last.

3He himself went on ahead of them, bowing to the ground seven times, until he reached his brother.

4Esau ran to meet him, embraced him, and flinging himself on his neck, kissed him as he wept.

5When Esau looked about, he saw the women and children. "Who are these with you?" he asked. Jacob answered, "They are the children whom God has graciously bestowed on your servant."

6Then the maidservants and their children came forward and bowed low;

7next, Leah and her children came forward and bowed low; lastly, Rachel and her children came forward and bowed low.

8Then Esau asked, "What did you intend with all those droves that I encountered?" Jacob answered, "It was to gain my lord's favor."

9"I have plenty," replied Esau; "you should keep what is yours, brother."

10"No, I beg you!" said Jacob. "If you will do me the favor, please accept this gift from me, since to come into your presence is for me like coming into the presence of God, now that you have received me so kindly.

11Do accept the present I have brought you; God has been generous toward me, and I have an abundance." Since he so urged him, Esau accepted.

12Then Esau said, "Let us break camp and be on our way; I will travel alongside you."

13But Jacob replied: "As my lord can see, the children are frail. Besides, I am encumbered with the flocks and herds, which now have sucklings; if overdriven for a single day, the whole flock will die.

14Let my lord, then, go on ahead of me, while I proceed more slowly at the pace of the livestock before me and at the pace of my children, until I join my lord in Seir."

15Esau replied, "Let me at least put at your disposal some of the men who are with me." But Jacob said, "For what reason? Please indulge me in this, my lord."

16So on the same day that Esau began his journey back to Seir,

17Jacob journeyed to Succoth. There he built a home for himself and made booths for his livestock. That is why the place was called Succoth.

18Having thus come from Paddan-aram, Jacob arrived safely at the city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, and he encamped in sight of the city.

19The plot of ground on which he had pitched his tent he bought for a hundred pieces of bullion from the descendants of Hamor, the founder of Shechem.

20He set up a memorial stone there and invoked "El, the God of Israel."

34Dinah, the daughter whom Leah had borne to Jacob, went out to visit some of the women of the land.

2When Shechem, son of Hamor the Hivite, who was chief of the region, saw her, he seized her and lay with her by force.

3Since he was strongly attracted to Dinah, daughter of Jacob, indeed was really in love with the girl, he endeavored to win her affection.

4Shechem also asked his father Hamor, "Get me this girl for a wife."

5Meanwhile, Jacob heard that Shechem had defiled his daughter Dinah; but since his sons were out in the fields with his livestock, he held his peace until they came home.

6Now Hamor, the father of Shechem, went out to discuss the matter with Jacob,

7just as Jacob's sons were coming in from the fields. When they heard the news, the men were shocked and seethed with indignation. What Shechem had done was an outrage in Israel; such a thing could not be tolerated.

8Hamor appealed to them, saying: "My son Shechem has his heart set on your daughter. Please give her to him in marriage.

9Intermarry with us; give your daughters to us, and take our daughters for yourselves.

10Thus you can live among us. The land is open before you; you can settle and move about freely in it, and acquire landed property here."

11Then Shechem, too, appealed to Dinah's father and brothers: "Do me this favor, and I will pay whatever you demand of me.

12No matter how high you set the bridal price, I will pay you whatever you ask; only give me the maiden in marriage."

13Jacob's sons replied to Shechem and his father Hamor with guile, speaking as they did because their sister Dinah had been defiled.

14"We could not do such a thing," they said, "as to give our sister to an uncircumcised man; that would be a disgrace for us.

15We will agree with you only on this condition, that you become like us by having every male among you circumcised.

16Then we will give you our daughters and take yours in marriage; we will settle among you and become one kindred people with you.

17But if you do not comply with our terms regarding circumcision, we will take our daughter and go away."

18Their proposal seemed fair to Hamor and his son Shechem.

19The young man lost no time in acting in the matter, since he was deeply in love with Jacob's daughter. Moreover he was more highly respected than anyone else in his clan.

20So Hamor and his son Shechem went to their town council and thus presented the matter to their fellow townsmen:

21"These men are friendly toward us. Let them settle in the land and move about in it freely; there is ample room in the country for them. We can marry their daughters and give our daughters to them in marriage.

22But the men will agree to live with us and form one kindred people with us only on this condition, that every male among us be circumcised as they themselves are.

23Would not the livestock they have acquired--all their animals--then be ours? Let us, therefore, give in to them, so that they may settle among us."

24All the able-bodied men of the town agreed with Hamor and his son Shechem, and all the males, including every able-bodied man in the community, were circumcised.

25On the third day, while they were still in pain, Dinah's full brothers Simeon and Levi, two of Jacob's sons, took their swords, advanced against the city without any trouble, and massacred all the males.

26After they had put Hamor and his son Shechem to the sword, they took Dinah from Shechem's house and left.

27Then the other sons of Jacob followed up the slaughter and sacked the city in reprisal for their sister Dinah's defilement.

28They seized their flocks, herds and asses, whatever was in the city and in the country around.

29They carried off all their wealth, their women, and their children, and took for loot whatever was in the houses.

30Jacob said to Simeon and Levi: "You have brought trouble upon me by making me loathsome to the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites and the Perizzites. I have so few men that, if these people unite against me and attack me, I and my family will be wiped out."

31But they retorted, "Should our sister have been treated like a harlot?"

35God said to Jacob: "Go up now to Bethel. Settle there and build an altar there to the God who appeared to you while you were fleeing from your brother Esau."

2So Jacob told his family and all the others who were with him: "Get rid of the foreign gods that you have among you; then purify yourselves and put on fresh clothes.

3We are now to go up to Bethel, and I will build an altar there to the God who answered me in my hour of distress and who has been with me wherever I have gone."

4They therefore handed over to Jacob all the foreign gods in their possession and also the rings they had in their ears.

5Then, as they set out, a terror from God fell upon the towns round about, so that no one pursued the sons of Jacob.

6Thus Jacob and all the people who were with him arrived in Luz (that is, Bethel) in the land of Canaan.

7There he built an altar and named the place Bethel, for it was there that God had revealed himself to him when he was fleeing from his brother.

8Death came to Rebekah's nurse Deborah; she was buried under the oak below Bethel, and so it was called Allonbacuth.

9On Jacob's arrival from Paddan-aram, God appeared to him again and blessed him.

10God said to him: "You whose name is Jacob shall no longer be called Jacob, but Israel shall be your name." Thus he was named Israel.

11God also said to him: "I am God Almighty; be fruitful and multiply. A nation, indeed an assembly of nations, shall stem from you, and kings shall issue from your loins.

12The land I once gave to Abraham and Isaac I now give to you; And to your descendants after you will I give this land."

13Then God departed from him.

14On the site where God had spoken with him, Jacob set up a memorial stone, and upon it he made a libation and poured out oil.

15Jacob named the site Bethel, because God had spoken with him there.

16Then they departed from Bethel; but while they still had some distance to go on the way to Ephrath, Rachel began to be in labor and to suffer great distress.

17When her pangs were most severe, her midwife said to her, "Have no fear! This time, too, you have a son."

18With her last breath--for she was at the point of death-she called him Ben-oni; his father, however, named him Benjamin.

19Thus Rachel died; and she was buried on the road to Ephrath (that is, Bethlehem).

20Jacob set up a memorial stone on her grave, and the same monument marks Rachel's grave to this day.

21Israel moved on and pitched his tent beyond Migdal-eder.

22While Israel was encamped in that region, Reuben went and lay with Bilhah, his father's concubine. When Israel heard of it, he was greatly offended. The sons of Jacob were now twelve.

23The sons of Leah: Reuben, Jacob's first-born, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun;

24the sons of Rachel: Joseph and Benjamin;

25the sons of Rachel's maid Bilhah: Dan and Naphtali;

26the sons of Leah's maid Zilpah: Gad and Asher. These are the sons of Jacob who were born to him in Paddan-aram.

27Jacob went home to his father Isaac at Mamre, in Kiriath-arba (that is, Hebron), where Abraham and Isaac had stayed.

28The lifetime of Isaac was one hundred and eighty years;

29then he breathed his last. After a full life, he died as an old man and was taken to his kinsmen. His sons Esau and Jacob buried him.

36These are the descendants of Esau (that is, Edom).

2Esau took his wives from among the Canaanite women: Adah, daughter of Elon the Hittite; Oholibamah, granddaughter through Anah of Zibeon the Hivite;

3and Basemath, daughter of Ishmael and sister of Nebaioth.

4Adah bore Eliphaz to Esau; Basemath bore Reuel;

5and Oholibamah bore Jeush, Jalam and Korah. These are the sons of Esau who were born to him in the land of Canaan.

6Esau took his wives, his sons, his daughters, and all the members of his household, as well as his livestock comprising various animals and all the property he had acquired in the land of Canaan, and went to the land of Seir, out of the way of his brother Jacob.

7Their possessions had become too great for them to dwell together, and the land in which they were staying could not support them because of their livestock.

8So Esau settled in the highlands of Seir. (Esau is Edom.)

9These are the descendants of Esau, ancestor of the Edomites, in the highlands of Seir.

10These are the names of Esau's sons: Eliphaz, son of Esau's wife Adah; and Reuel, son of Esau's wife Basemath.

11The sons of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, and Kenaz.

12(Esau's son Eliphaz had a concubine Timna, and she bore Amalek to Eliphaz.) These are the descendants of Esau's wife Adah.

13The sons of Reuel were Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. These are the descendants of Esau's wife Basemath.

14The descendants of Esau's wife Oholibamah--granddaughter through Anah of Zibeon--whom she bore to Esau were Jeush, Jalam, and Korah.

15The following are the clans of Esau's descendants. The descendants of Eliphaz, Esau's first-born: the clans of Teman, Omar, Zepho, Kenaz,

16Korah, Gatam, and Amalek. These are the clans of Eliphaz in the land of Edom; they are descended from Adah.

17The descendants of Esau's son Reuel: the clans of Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. These are the clans of Reuel in the land of Edom; they are descended from Esau's wife Basemath.

18The descendants of Esau's wife Oholibamah: the clans of Jeush, Jalam, and Korah. These are the clans of Esau's wife Oholibamah, daughter of Anah.

19Such are the descendants of Esau (that is, Edom) according to their clans.

20The following are the descendants of Seir the Horite, the original settlers in the land: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah,

21Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan; they are the Horite clans descended from Seir, in the land of Edom.

22Lotan's descendants were Hori and Hemam, and Lotan's sister was Timna.

23Shobal's descendants were Alvan, Mahanath, Ebal, Shepho, and Onam.

24Zibeon's descendants were Aiah and Anah. (He is the Anah who found water in the desert while he was pasturing the asses of his father Zibeon.)

25The descendants of Anah were Dishon and Oholibamah, daughter of Anah.

26The descendants of Dishon were Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Cheran.

27The descendants of Ezer were Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan.

28The descendants of Dishan were Uz and Aran.

29These are the Horite clans: the clans of Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah,

30Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan; they were the clans of the Horites, clan by clan, in the land of Seir.

31The following are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the Israelites.

32Bela, son of Beor, became king in Edom; the name of his city was Dinhabah.

33When Bela died, Jobab, son of Zerah, from Bozrah, succeeded him as king.

34When Jobab died, Husham, from the land of the Temanites, succeeded him as king. He defeated the Midianites in the country of Moab; the name of his city was Avith.

35When Husham died, Hadad, son of Bedad, succeeded him as king.

36When Hadad died, Samlah, from Masrekah, succeeded him as king.

37When Samlah died, Shaul, from Rehoboth-on-the-River, succeeded him as king.

38When Shaul died, Baal-hanan, son of Achbor, succeeded him as king.

39When Baal-hanan died, Hadar succeeded him as king; the name of his city was Pau. (His wife's name was Mehetabel; she was the daughter of Matred, son of Mezahab.)

40The following are the names of the clans of Esau individually according to their subdivisions and localities: the clans of Timna, Alvah, Jetheth,

41Oholibamah, Elah, Pinon,

42Kenaz, Teman, Mibzar,

43Magdiel, and Iram. These are the clans of the Edomites, according to their settlements in their territorial holdings. (Esau was the father of the Edomites.)

37Jacob settled in the land where his father had stayed, the land of Canaan.

2This is his family history. When Joseph was seventeen years old, he was tending the flocks with his brothers; he was an assistant to the sons of his father's wives Bilhah and Zilpah, and he brought his father bad reports about them.

3Israel loved Joseph best of all his sons, for he was the child of his old age; and he had made him a long tunic.

4When his brothers saw that their father loved him best of all his sons, they hated him so much that they would not even greet him.

5Once Joseph had a dream, which he told to his brothers:

6"Listen to this dream I had.

7There we were, binding sheaves in the field, when suddenly my sheaf rose to an upright position, and your sheaves formed a ring around my sheaf and bowed down to it."

8"Are you really going to make yourself king over us?" his brothers asked him. "Or impose your rule on us?" So they hated him all the more because of his talk about his dreams.

9Then he had another dream, and this one, too, he told to his brothers. "I had another dream," he said; "this time, the sun and the moon and eleven stars were bowing down to me."

10When he also told it to his father, his father reproved him. "What is the meaning of this dream of yours?" he asked. "Can it be that I and your mother and your brothers are to come and bow to the ground before you?"

11So his brothers were wrought up against him but his father pondered the matter.

12One day, when his brothers had gone to pasture their father's flocks at Shechem,

13Israel said to Joseph, "Your brothers, you know, are tending our flocks at Shechem. Get ready; I will send you to them." "I am ready," Joseph answered.

14"Go then," he replied; "see if all is well with your brothers and the flocks, and bring back word." So he sent him off from the valley of Hebron. When Joseph reached Shechem,

15a man met him as he was wandering about in the fields. "What are you looking for?" the man asked him.

16"I am looking for my brothers," he answered. "Could you please tell me where they are tending the flocks?"

17The man told him, "They have moved on from here; in fact, I heard them say, 'Let us go on to Dothan.'" So Joseph went after his brothers and caught up with them in Dothan.

18They noticed him from a distance, and before he came up to them, they plotted to kill him.

19They said to one another: "Here comes that master dreamer!

20Come on, let us kill him and throw him into one of the cisterns here; we could say that a wild beast devoured him. We shall then see what comes of his dreams."

21When Reuben heard this, he tried to save him from their hands, saying: "We must not take his life.

22Instead of shedding blood," he continued, "just throw him into that cistern there in the desert; but don't kill him outright." His purpose was to rescue him from their hands and restore him to his father.

23So when Joseph came up to them, they stripped him of the long tunic he had on;

24then they took him and threw him into the cistern, which was empty and dry.

25They then sat down to their meal. Looking up, they saw a caravan of Ishmaelites coming from Gilead, their camels laden with gum, balm and resin to be taken down to Egypt.

26Judah said to his brothers: "What is to be gained by killing our brother and concealing his blood?

27Rather, let us sell him to these Ishmaelites, instead of doing away with him ourselves. After all, he is our brother, our own flesh." His brothers agreed.

28They sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites for twenty pieces of silver. Some Midianite traders passed by, and they pulled Joseph up out of the cistern and took him to Egypt.

29When Reuben went back to the cistern and saw that Joseph was not in it, he tore his clothes,

30and returning to his brothers, he exclaimed: "The boy is gone! And I--where can I turn?"

31They took Joseph's tunic, and after slaughtering a goat, dipped the tunic in its blood.

32Then they sent someone to bring the long tunic to their father, with the message: "We found this. See whether it is your son's tunic or not."

33He recognized it and exclaimed: "My son's tunic! A wild beast has devoured him! Joseph has been torn to pieces!"

34Then Jacob rent his clothes, put sackcloth on his loins, and mourned his son many days.

35Though his sons and daughters tried to console him, he refused all consolation, saying, "No, I will go down mourning to my son in the nether world." Thus did his father lament him.

36The Midianites, meanwhile, sold Joseph in Egypt to Potiphar, a courtier of Pharaoh and his chief steward.

38About that time Judah parted from his brothers and pitched his tent near a certain Adullamite named Hirah.

2There he met the daughter of a Canaanite named Shua, married her, and had relations with her.

3She conceived and bore a son, whom she named Er.

4Again she conceived and bore a son, whom she named Onan.

5Then she bore still another son, whom she named Shelah. They were in Chezib when he was born.

6Judah got a wife named Tamar for his first-born, Er.

7But Er, Judah's first-born, greatly offended the LORD; so the LORD took his life.

8Then Judah said to Onan, "Unite with your brother's widow, in fulfillment of your duty as brother-in-law, and thus preserve your brother's line."

9Onan, however, knew that the descendants would not be counted as his; so whenever he had relations with his brother's widow, he wasted his seed on the ground, to avoid contributing offspring for his brother.

10What he did greatly offended the LORD, and the LORD took his life too.

11Thereupon Judah said to his daughter-in-law Tamar, "Stay as a widow in your father's house until my son Shelah grows up"--for he feared that Shelah also might die like his brothers. So Tamar went to live in her father's house.

12Years passed, and Judah's wife, the daughter of Shua, died. After Judah completed the period of mourning, he went up to Timnah for the shearing of his sheep, in company with his friend Hirah the Adullamite.

13When Tamar was told that her father-in-law was on his way up to Timnah to shear his sheep,

14she took off her widow's garb, veiled her face by covering herself with a shawl, and sat down at the entrance to Enaim, which is on the way to Timnah; for she was aware that, although Shelah was now grown up, she had not been given to him in marriage.

15When Judah saw her, he mistook her for a harlot, since she had covered her face.

16So he went over to her at the roadside, and not realizing that she was his daughter-in-law, he said, "Come, let me have intercourse with you." She replied, "What will you pay me for letting you have intercourse with me?"

17He answered, "I will send you a kid from the flock." "Very well," she said, "provided you leave a pledge until you send it."

18Judah asked, "What pledge am I to give to you?" She answered, "Your seal and cord, and the staff you carry." So he gave them to her and had intercourse with her, and she conceived by him.

19When she went away, she took off her shawl and put on her widow's garb again.

20Judah sent the kid by his friend the Adullamite to recover the pledge from the woman; but he could not find her.

21So he asked the men of the place, "Where is the temple prostitute, the one by the roadside in Enaim?" But they answered, "There has never been a temple prostitute here."

22He went back to Judah and told him, "I could not find her; and besides, the men of the place said there was no temple prostitute there."

23"Let her keep the things," Judah replied; "otherwise we shall become a laughingstock. After all, I did send her the kid, even though you were unable to find her."

24About three months later, Judah was told that his daughter-in-law Tamar had played the harlot and was then with child from her harlotry. "Bring her out," cried Judah; "she shall be burned."

25But as they were bringing her out, she sent word to her father-in-law, "It is by the man to whom these things belong that I am with child. Please verify," she added, "whose seal and cord and whose staff these are."

26Judah recognized them and said, "She is more in the right than I am, since I did not give her to my son Shelah." But he had no further relations with her.

27When the time of her delivery came, she was found to have twins in her womb.

28While she was giving birth, one infant put out his hand; and the midwife, taking a crimson thread, tied it on his hand, to note that this one came out first.

29But as he withdrew his hand, his brother came out; and she said, "What a breach you have made for yourself!" So he was called Perez.

30Afterward his brother came out; he was called Zerah.

39When Joseph was taken down to Egypt, a certain Egyptian (Potiphar, a courtier of Pharaoh and his chief steward) bought him from the Ishmaelites who had brought him there.

2But since the LORD was with him, Joseph got on very well and was assigned to the household of his Egyptian master.

3When his master saw that the LORD was with him and brought him success in whatever he did,

4he took a liking to Joseph and made him his personal attendant; he put him in charge of his household and entrusted to him all his possessions.

5From the moment that he put him in charge of his household and all his possessions, the LORD blessed the Egyptian's house for Joseph's sake; in fact, the LORD'S blessing was on everything he owned, both inside the house and out.

6Having left everything he owned in Joseph's charge, he gave no thought, with Joseph there, to anything but the food he ate. Now Joseph was strikingly handsome in countenance and body.

7After a time, his master's wife began to look fondly at him and said, "Lie with me."

8But he refused. "As long as I am here," he told her, "my master does not concern himself with anything in the house, but has entrusted to me all he owns.

9He wields no more authority in this house than I do, and he has withheld from me nothing but yourself, since you are his wife. How, then, could I commit so great a wrong and thus stand condemned before God?"

10Although she tried to entice him day after day, he would not agree to lie beside her, or even stay near her.

11One such day, when Joseph came into the house to do his work, and none of the household servants were then in the house,

12she laid hold of him by his cloak, saying, "Lie with me!" But leaving the cloak in her hand, he got away from her and ran outside.

13When she saw that he had left his cloak in her hand as he fled outside,

14she screamed for her household servants and told them, "Look! my husband has brought in a Hebrew slave to make sport of us! He came in here to lie with me, but I cried out as loud as I could.

15When he heard me scream for help, he left his cloak beside me and ran away outside."

16She kept the cloak with her until his master came home.

17Then she told him the same story: "The Hebrew slave whom you brought here broke in on me, to make sport of me.

18But when I screamed for help, he left his cloak beside me and fled outside."

19As soon as the master heard his wife's story about how his slave had treated her, he became enraged.

20He seized Joseph and threw him into the jail where the royal prisoners were confined. But even while he was in prison,

21the LORD remained with Joseph; he showed him kindness by making the chief jailer well-disposed toward him.

22The chief jailer put Joseph in charge of all the prisoners in the jail, and everything that had to be done there was done under his management.

23The chief jailer did not concern himself with anything at all that was in Joseph's charge, since the LORD was with him and brought success to all he did.

40Some time afterward, the royal cupbearer and baker gave offense to their lord, the king of Egypt.

2Pharaoh was angry with his two courtiers, the chief cupbearer and the chief baker,

3and he put them in custody in the house of the chief steward (the same jail where Joseph was confined).

4The chief steward assigned Joseph to them, and he became their attendant. After they had been in custody for some time,

5the cupbearer and the baker of the king of Egypt who were confined in the jail both had dreams on the same night, each dream with its own meaning.

6When Joseph came to them in the morning, he noticed that they looked disturbed.

7So he asked Pharaoh's courtiers who were with him in custody in his master's house, "Why do you look so sad today?"

8They answered him, "We have had dreams, but there is no one to interpret them for us." Joseph said to them, "Surely, interpretations come from God. Please tell the dreams to me."

9Then the chief cupbearer told Joseph his dream. "In my dream," he said, "I saw a vine in front of me,

10and on the vine were three branches. It had barely budded when its blossoms came out, and its clusters ripened into grapes.

11Pharaoh's cup was in my hand; so I took the grapes, pressed them out into his cup, and put it in Pharaoh's hand."

12Joseph said to him: "This is what it means. The three branches are three days;

13within three days Pharaoh will lift up your head and restore you to your post. You will be handing Pharaoh his cup as you formerly used to do when you were his cupbearer.

14So if you will still remember, when all is well with you, that I was here with you, please do me the favor of mentioning me to Pharaoh, to get me out of this place.

15The truth is that I was kidnaped from the land of the Hebrews, and here I have not done anything for which I should have been put into a dungeon."

16When the chief baker saw that Joseph had given this favorable interpretation, he said to him: "I too had a dream. In it I had three wicker baskets on my head;

17in the top one were all kinds of bakery products for Pharaoh, but the birds were pecking at them out of the basket on my head."

18Joseph said to him in reply: "This is what it means. The three baskets are three days;

19within three days Pharaoh will lift up your head and have you impaled on a stake, and the birds will be pecking the flesh from your body."

20And in fact, on the third day, which was Pharaoh's birthday, when he gave a banquet to all his staff, with his courtiers around him, he lifted up the heads of the chief cupbearer and chief baker.

21He restored the chief cupbearer to his office, so that he again handed the cup to Pharaoh;

22but the chief baker he impaled-just as Joseph had told them in his interpretation.

23Yet the chief cupbearer gave no thought to Joseph; he had forgotten him.

41After a lapse of two years, Pharaoh had a dream. He saw himself standing by the Nile,

2when up out of the Nile came seven cows, handsome and fat; they grazed in the reed grass.

3Behind them seven other cows, ugly and gaunt, came up out of the Nile; and standing on the bank of the Nile beside the others,

4the ugly, gaunt cows ate up the seven handsome, fat cows. Then Pharaoh woke up.

5He fell asleep again and had another dream. He saw seven ears of grain, fat and healthy, growing on a single stalk.

6Behind them sprouted seven ears of grain, thin and blasted by the east wind;

7and the seven thin ears swallowed up the seven fat, healthy ears. Then Pharaoh woke up, to find it was only a dream.

8Next morning his spirit was agitated. So he summoned all the magicians and sages of Egypt and recounted his dreams to them; but no one could interpret his dreams for him.

9Then the chief cupbearer spoke up and said to Pharaoh: "On this occasion I am reminded of my negligence.

10Once, when Pharaoh was angry, he put me and the chief baker in custody in the house of the chief steward.

11Later, we both had dreams on the same night, and each of our dreams had its own meaning.

12There with us was a Hebrew youth, a slave of the chief steward; and when we told him our dreams, he interpreted them for us and explained for each of us the meaning of his dream.

13And it turned out just as he had told us: I was restored to my post, but the other man was impaled."

14Pharaoh therefore had Joseph summoned, and they hurriedly brought him from the dungeon. After he shaved and changed his clothes, he came into Pharaoh's presence.

15Pharaoh then said to him: "I had certain dreams that no one can interpret. But I hear it said of you that the moment you are told a dream you can interpret it."

16"It is not I," Joseph replied to Pharaoh, "but God who will give Pharaoh the right answer."

17Then Pharaoh said to Joseph: "In my dream, I was standing on the bank of the Nile,

18when up from the Nile came seven cows, fat and well-formed; they grazed in the reed grass.

19Behind them came seven other cows, scrawny, most ill-formed and gaunt. Never have I seen such ugly specimens as these in all the land of Egypt!

20The gaunt, ugly cows ate up the first seven fat cows.

21But when they had consumed them, no one could tell that they had done so, because they looked as ugly as before. Then I woke up.

22In another dream I saw seven ears of grain, fat and healthy, growing on a single stalk.

23Behind them sprouted seven ears of grain, shriveled and thin and blasted by the east wind;

24and the seven thin ears swallowed up the seven healthy ears. I have spoken to the magicians, but none of them can give me an explanation."

25Joseph said to Pharaoh: "Both of Pharaoh's dreams have the same meaning. God has thus foretold to Pharaoh what he is about to do.

26The seven healthy cows are seven years, and the seven healthy ears are seven years--the same in each dream.

27So also, the seven thin, ugly cows that came up after them are seven years, as are the seven thin, wind-blasted ears; they are seven years of famine.

28It is just as I told Pharaoh: God has revealed to Pharaoh what he is about to do.

29Seven years of great abundance are now coming throughout the land of Egypt;

30but these will be followed by seven years of famine, when all the abundance in the land of Egypt will be forgotten. When the famine has ravaged the land,

31no trace of the abundance will be found in the land because of the famine that follows it--so utterly severe will that famine be.

32That Pharaoh had the same dream twice means that the matter has been reaffirmed by God and that God will soon bring it about.

33"Therefore, let Pharaoh seek out a wise and discerning man and put him in charge of the land of Egypt.

34Pharaoh should also take action to appoint overseers, so as to regiment the land during the seven years of abundance.

35They should husband all the food of the coming good years, collecting the grain under Pharaoh's authority, to be stored in the towns for food.

36This food will serve as a reserve for the country against the seven years of famine that are to follow in the land of Egypt, so that the land may not perish in the famine."

37This advice pleased Pharaoh and all his officials.

38"Could we find another like him," Pharaoh asked his officials, "a man so endowed with the spirit of God?"

39So Pharaoh said to Joseph: "Since God has made all this known to you, no one can be as wise and discerning as you are.

40You shall be in charge of my palace, and all my people shall dart at your command. Only in respect to the throne shall I outrank you.

41Herewith," Pharaoh told Joseph, "I place you in charge of the whole land of Egypt."

42With that, Pharaoh took off his signet ring and put it on Joseph's finger. He had him dressed in robes of fine linen and put a gold chain about his neck.

43He then had him ride in the chariot of his vizier, and they shouted "Abrek!" before him. Thus was Joseph installed over the whole land of Egypt.

44"I, Pharaoh, proclaim," he told Joseph, "that without your approval no one shall move hand or foot in all the land of Egypt."

45Pharaoh also bestowed the name of Zaphnath-paneah on Joseph, and he gave him in marriage Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera, priest of Heliopolis.

46Joseph was thirty years old when he entered the service of Pharaoh, king of Egypt. After Joseph left Pharaoh's presence, he traveled throughout the land of Egypt.

47During the seven years of plenty, when the land produced abundant crops,

48he husbanded all the food of these years of plenty that the land of Egypt was enjoying and stored it in the towns, placing in each town the crops of the fields around it.

49Joseph garnered grain in quantities like the sands of the sea, so vast that at last he stopped measuring it, for it was beyond measure.

50Before the famine years set in, Joseph became the father of two sons, borne to him by Asenath, daughter of Potiphera, priest of Heliopolis.

51He named his first-born Manasseh, meaning, "God has made me forget entirely the sufferings I endured at the hands of my family";

52and the second he named Ephraim, meaning, "God has made me fruitful in the land of my affliction."

53When the seven years of abundance enjoyed by the land of Egypt came to an end,

54the seven years of famine set in, just as Joseph had predicted. Although there was famine in all the other countries, food was available throughout the land of Egypt.

55When hunger came to be felt throughout the land of Egypt and the people cried to Pharaoh for bread, Pharaoh directed all the Egyptians to go to Joseph and do whatever he told them.

56When the famine had spread throughout the land, Joseph opened all the cities that had grain and rationed it to the Egyptians, since the famine had gripped the land of Egypt.

57In fact, all the world came to Joseph to obtain rations of grain, for famine had gripped the whole world.

42When Jacob learned that grain rations were available in Egypt, he said to his sons: "Why do you keep gaping at one another?

2I hear," he went on, "that rations of grain are available in Egypt. Go down there and buy some for us, that we may stay alive rather than die of hunger."

3So ten of Joseph's brothers went down to buy an emergency supply of grain from Egypt.

4It was only Joseph's full brother Benjamin that Jacob did not send with the rest, for he thought some disaster might befall him.

5Thus, since there was famine in the land of Canaan also, the sons of Israel were among those who came to procure rations.

6It was Joseph, as governor of the country, who dispensed the rations to all the people. When Joseph's brothers came and knelt down before him with their faces to the ground,

7he recognized them as soon as he saw them. But he concealed his own identity from them and spoke sternly to them. "Where do you come from?" he asked them. They answered, "From the land of Canaan, to procure food."

8When Joseph recognized his brothers, although they did not recognize him,

9he was reminded of the dreams he had about them. He said to them: "You are spies. You have come to see the nakedness of the land."

10"No, my lord," they replied. "On the contrary, your servants have come to procure food.

11All of us are sons of the same man. We are honest men; your servants have never been spies."

12But he answered them: "Not so! You have come to see the nakedness of the land."

13"We your servants," they said, "were twelve brothers, sons of a certain man in Canaan; but the youngest one is at present with our father, and the other one is gone."

14"It is just as I said," Joseph persisted; "you are spies.

15This is how you shall be tested: unless your youngest brother comes here, I swear by the life of Pharaoh that you shall not leave here.

16So send one of your number to get your brother, while the rest of you stay here under arrest. Thus shall your words be tested for their truth; if they are untrue, as Pharaoh lives, you are spies!"

17With that, he locked them up in the guardhouse for three days.

18On the third day Joseph said to them: "Do this, and you shall live; for I am a God-fearing man.

19If you have been honest, only one of your brothers need be confined in this prison, while the rest of you may go and take home provisions for your starving families.

20But you must come back to me with your youngest brother. Your words will thus be verified, and you will not die." To this they agreed.

21To one another, however, they said: "Alas, we are being punished because of our brother. We saw the anguish of his heart when he pleaded with us, yet we paid no heed; that is why this anguish has now come upon us."

22"Didn't I tell you," broke in Reuben, "not to do wrong to the boy? But you wouldn't listen! Now comes the reckoning for his blood."

23They did not know, of course, that Joseph understood what they said, since he spoke with them through an interpreter.

24But turning away from them, he wept. When he was able to speak to them again, he had Simeon taken from them and bound before their eyes.

25Then Joseph gave orders to have their containers filled with grain, their money replaced in each one's sack, and provisions given them for their journey. After this had been done for them,

26they loaded their donkeys with the rations and departed.

27At the night encampment, when one of them opened his bag to give his donkey some fodder, he was surprised to see his money in the mouth of his bag.

28"My money has been returned!" he cried out to his brothers. "Here it is in my bag!" At that their hearts sank. Trembling, they asked one another, "What is this that God has done to us?"

29When they got back to their father Jacob in the land of Canaan, they told him all that had happened to them.

30"The man who is lord of the country," they said, "spoke to us sternly and put us in custody as if we were spying on the land.

31But we said to him: 'We are honest men; we have never been spies.

32There were twelve of us brothers, sons of the same father; but one is gone, and the youngest one is at present with our father in the land of Canaan.'

33Then the man who is lord of the country said to us: 'This is how I shall know if you are honest men: leave one of your brothers with me, while the rest of you go home with rations for your starving families.

34When you come back to me with your youngest brother, and I know that you are honest men and not spies, I will restore your brother to you, and you may move about freely in the land.'"

35When they were emptying their sacks, there in each one's sack was his moneybag! At the sight of their moneybags, they and their father were dismayed.

36Their father Jacob said to them: "Must you make me childless? Joseph is gone, and Simeon is gone, and now you would take away Benjamin! Why must such things always happen to me?"

37Then Reuben told his father: "Put him in my care, and I will bring him back to you. You may kill my own two sons if I do not return him to you."

38But Jacob replied: "My son shall not go down with you. Now that his full brother is dead, he is the only one left. If some disaster should befall him on the journey you must make, you would send my white head down to the nether world in grief."

43Now the famine in the land grew more severe.

2So when they had used up all the rations they had brought from Egypt, their father said to them, "Go back and procure us a little more food."

3But Judah replied: "The man strictly warned us, 'You shall not appear in my presence unless your brother is with you.'

4If you are willing to let our brother go with us, we will go down to procure food for you.

5But if you are not willing, we will not go down, because the man told us, 'You shall not appear in my presence unless your brother is with you.'"

6Israel demanded, "Why did you bring this trouble on me by telling the man that you had another brother?"

7They answered: "The man kept asking about ourselves and our family: 'Is your father still living? Do you have another brother?' We had to answer his questions. How could we know that he would say, 'Bring your brother down here'?"

8Then Judah urged his father Israel: "Let the boy go with me, that we may be off and on our way if you and we and our children are to keep from starving to death.

9I myself will stand surety for him. You can hold me responsible for him. If I fail to bring him back, to set him in your presence, you can hold it against me forever.

10Had we not dilly-dallied, we could have been there and back twice by now!"

11Their father Israel then told them: "If it must be so, then do this: Put some of the land's best products in your baggage and take them down to the man as gifts: some balm and honey, gum and resin, and pistachios and almonds.

12Also take extra money along, for you must return the amount that was put back in the mouths of your bags; it may have been a mistake.

13Take your brother, too, and be off on your way back to the man.

14May God Almighty dispose the man to be merciful toward you, so that he may let your other brother go, as well as Benjamin. As for me, if I am to suffer bereavement, I shall suffer it."

15So the men got the gifts, took double the amount of money with them, and, accompanied by Benjamin, were off on their way down to Egypt to present themselves to Joseph.

16When Joseph saw Benjamin with them, he told his head steward, "Take these men into the house, and have an animal slaughtered and prepared, for they are to dine with me at noon."

17Doing as Joseph had ordered, the steward conducted the men to Joseph's house.

18But on being led to his house, they became apprehensive. "It must be," they thought, "on account of the money put back in our bags the first time, that we are taken inside; they want to use it as a pretext to attack us and take our donkeys and seize us as slaves."

19So they went up to Joseph's head steward and talked to him at the entrance of the house.

20"If you please, sir," they said, "we came down here once before to procure food.

21But when we arrived at a night's encampment and opened our bags, there was each man's money in the mouth of his bag--our money in the full amount! We have now brought it back.

22We have brought other money to procure food with. We do not know who put the first money in our bags."

23"Be at ease," he replied; "you have no need to fear. Your God and the God of your father must have put treasures in your bags for you. As for your money, I received it." With that, he led Simeon out to them.

24The steward then brought the men inside Joseph's house. He gave them water to bathe their feet, and got fodder for their donkeys.

25Then they set out their gifts to await Joseph's arrival at noon, for they had heard that they were to dine there.

26When Joseph came home, they presented him with the gifts they had brought inside, while they bowed down before him to the ground.

27After inquiring how they were, he asked them, "And how is your aged father, of whom you spoke? Is he still in good health?"

28"Your servant our father is thriving and still in good health," they said, as they bowed respectfully.

29When Joseph's eye fell on his full brother Benjamin, he asked, "Is this your youngest brother, of whom you told me?" Then he said to him, "May God be gracious to you, my boy!"

30With that, Joseph had to hurry out, for he was so overcome with affection for his brother that he was on the verge of tears. He went into a private room and wept there.

31After washing his face, he reappeared and, now in control of himself, gave the order, "Serve the meal."

32It was served separately to him, to the brothers, and to the Egyptians who partook of his board. (Egyptians may not eat with Hebrews; that is abhorrent to them.)

33When they were seated by his directions according to their age, from the oldest to the youngest, they looked at one another in amazement;

34and as portions were brought to them from Joseph's table, Benjamin's portion was five times as large as anyone else's. So they drank freely and made merry with him.

44Then Joseph gave his head steward these instructions: "Fill the men's bags with as much food as they can carry, and put each man's money in the mouth of his bag.

2In the mouth of the youngest one's bag put also my silver goblet, together with the money for his rations." The steward carried out Joseph's instructions.

3At daybreak the men and their donkeys were sent off.

4They had not gone far out of the city when Joseph said to his head steward: "Go at once after the men! When you overtake them, say to them, 'Why did you repay good with evil? Why did you steal the silver goblet from me?

5It is the very one from which my master drinks and which he uses for divination. What you have done is wrong.'"

6When the steward overtook them and repeated these words to them,

7they remonstrated with him: "How can my lord say such things? Far be it from your servants to do such a thing!

8We even brought back to you from the land of Canaan the money that we found in the mouths of our bags. Why, then, would we steal silver or gold from your master's house?

9If any of your servants is found to have the goblet, he shall die, and as for the rest of us, we shall become my lord's slaves."

10But he replied, "Even though it ought to be as you propose, only the one who is found to have it shall become my slave, and the rest of you shall be exonerated."

11Then each of them eagerly lowered his bag to the ground and opened it;

12and when a search was made, starting with the oldest and ending with the youngest, the goblet turned up in Benjamin's bag.

13At this, they tore their clothes. Then, when each man had reloaded his donkey, they returned to the city.

14As Judah and his brothers reentered Joseph's house, he was still there; so they flung themselves on the ground before him.

15"How could you do such a thing?" Joseph asked them. "You should have known that such a man as I could discover by divination what happened."

16Judah replied: "What can we say to my lord? How can we plead or how try to prove our innocence? God has uncovered your servants' guilt. Here we are, then, the slaves of my lord--the rest of us no less than the one in whose possession the goblet was found."

17"Far be it from me to act thus!" said Joseph. "Only the one in whose possession the goblet was found shall become my slave; the rest of you may go back safe and sound to your father."

18Judah then stepped up to him and said: "I beg you, my lord, let your servant speak earnestly to my lord, and do not become angry with your servant, for you are the equal of Pharaoh.

19My lord asked your servants, 'Have you a father, or another brother?'

20So we said to my lord, 'We have an aged father, and a young brother, the child of his old age. This one's full brother is dead, and since he is the only one by that mother who is left, his father dotes on him.'

21Then you told your servants, 'Bring him down to me that my eyes may look on him.'

22We replied to my lord, 'The boy cannot leave his father; his father would die if he were to leave him.'

23But you told your servants, 'Unless your youngest brother comes back with you, you shall not come into my presence again.'

24When we returned to your servant our father, we reported to him the words of my lord.

25"Later, our father told us to come back and buy some food for the family.

26So we reminded him, 'We cannot go down there; only if our youngest brother is with us can we go, for we may not see the man if our youngest brother is not with us.'

27Then your servant our father said to us, 'As you know, my wife bore me two sons.

28One of them, however, disappeared, and I had to conclude that he must have been torn to pieces by wild beasts; I have not seen him since.

29If you now take this one away from me too, and some disaster befalls him, you will send my white head down to the nether world in grief.'

30"If then the boy is not with us when I go back to your servant my father, whose very life is bound up with his, he will die as soon as he sees that the boy is missing;

31and your servants will thus send the white head of our father down to the nether world in grief.

32Besides, I, your servant, got the boy from his father by going surety for him, saying, 'If I fail to bring him back to you, father, you can hold it against me forever.'

33Let me, your servant, therefore, remain in place of the boy as the slave of my lord, and let the boy go back with his brothers.

34How could I go back to my father if the boy were not with me? I could not bear to see the anguish that would overcome my father."

45Joseph could no longer control himself in the presence of all his attendants, so he cried out, "Have everyone withdraw from me!" Thus no one else was about when he made himself known to his brothers.

2But his sobs were so loud that the Egyptians heard him, and so the news reached Pharaoh's palace.

3"I am Joseph," he said to his brothers. "Is my father still in good health?" But his brothers could give him no answer, so dumbfounded were they at him.

4"Come closer to me," he told his brothers. When they had done so, he said: "I am your brother Joseph, whom you once sold into Egypt.

5But now do not be distressed, and do not reproach yourselves for having sold me here. It was really for the sake of saving lives that God sent me here ahead of you.

6For two years now the famine has been in the land, and for five more years tillage will yield no harvest.

7God, therefore, sent me on ahead of you to ensure for you a remnant on earth and to save your lives in an extraordinary deliverance.

8So it was not really you but God who had me come here; and he has made of me a father to Pharaoh, lord of all his household, and ruler over the whole land of Egypt.

9"Hurry back, then, to my father and tell him: 'Thus says your son Joseph: God has made me lord of all Egypt; come to me without delay.

10You will settle in the region of Goshen, where you will be near me--you and your children and grandchildren, your flocks and herds, and everything that you own.

11Since five years of famine still lie ahead, I will provide for you there, so that you and your family and all that are yours may not suffer want.'

12Surely, you can see for yourselves, and Benjamin can see for himself, that it is I, Joseph, who am speaking to you.

13Tell my father all about my high position in Egypt and what you have seen. But hurry and bring my father down here."

14Thereupon he flung himself on the neck of his brother Benjamin and wept, and Benjamin wept in his arms.

15Joseph then kissed all his brothers, crying over each of them; and only then were his brothers able to talk with him.

16When the news reached Pharaoh's palace that Joseph's brothers had come, Pharaoh and his courtiers were pleased.

17So Pharaoh told Joseph: "Say to your brothers: 'This is what you shall do: Load up your animals and go without delay to the land of Canaan.

18There get your father and your families, and then come back here to me; I will assign you the best land in Egypt, where you will live off the fat of the land.'

19Instruct them further: 'Do this. Take wagons from the land of Egypt for your children and your wives and to transport your father on your way back here.

20Do not be concerned about your belongings, for the best in the whole land of Egypt shall be yours.'"

21The sons of Israel acted accordingly. Joseph gave them the wagons, as Pharaoh had ordered, and he supplied them with provisions for the journey.

22He also gave to each of them fresh clothing, but to Benjamin he gave three hundred shekels of silver and five sets of garments.

23Moreover, what he sent to his father was ten jackasses loaded with the finest products of Egypt and ten jennies loaded with grain and bread and other provisions for his journey.

24As he sent his brothers on their way, he told them, "Let there be no recriminations on the way."

25So they left Egypt and made their way to their father Jacob in the land of Canaan.

26When they told him, "Joseph is still alive--in fact, it is he who is ruler of all the land of Egypt," he was dumbfounded; he could not believe them.

27But when they recounted to him all that Joseph had told them, and when he saw the wagons that Joseph had sent for his transport, the spirit of their father Jacob revived.

28"It is enough," said Israel. "My son Joseph is still alive! I must go and see him before I die."

46Israel set out with all that was his. When he arrived at Beer-sheba, he offered sacrifices to the God of his father Isaac.

2There God, speaking to Israel in a vision by night, called, "Jacob! Jacob!" "Here I am," he answered.

3Then he said: "I am God, the God of your father. Do not be afraid to go down to Egypt, for there I will make you a great nation.

4Not only will I go down to Egypt with you; I will also bring you back here, after Joseph has closed your eyes."

5So Jacob departed from Beer-sheba, and the sons of Israel put their father and their wives and children on the wagons that Pharaoh had sent for his transport.

6They took with them their livestock and the possessions they had acquired in the land of Canaan. Thus Jacob and all his descendants migrated to Egypt.

7His sons and his grandsons, his daughters and his granddaughters--all his descendants--he took with him to Egypt.

8These are the names of the Israelites, Jacob and his descendants, who migrated to Egypt. Reuben, Jacob's first-born,

9and the sons of Reuben: Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi.

10The sons of Simeon: Nemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jachin, Zohar, and Shaul, son of a Canaanite woman.

11The sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.

12The sons of Judah: Er, Onan, Shelah, Perez, and Zerah--but Er and Onan had died in the land of Canaan; and the sons of Perez were Hezron and Hamul.

13The sons of Issachar: Tola, Puah, Jashub, and Shimron.

14The sons of Zebulun: Sered, Elon, and Jahleel.

15These were the sons whom Leah bore to Jacob in Paddan-aram, along with his daughter Dinah--thirty-three persons in all, male and female.

16The sons of Gad: Zephon, Haggi, Shuni, Ezbon, Eri, Arod, and Areli.

17The sons of Asher: Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi, and Beriah, with their sister Serah; and the sons of Beriah: Heber and Malchiel.

18These were the descendants of Zilpah, whom Laban had given to his daughter Leah; these she bore to Jacob--sixteen persons in all.

19The sons of Jacob's wife Rachel: Joseph and Benjamin.

20In the land of Egypt Joseph became the father of Manasseh and Ephraim, whom Asenath, daughter of Potiphera, priest of Heliopolis, bore to him.

21The sons of Benjamin: Bela, Becher, Ashbel, Gera, Naaman, Ahiram, Shupham, Hupham, and Ard.

22These were the sons whom Rachel bore to Jacob--fourteen persons in all.

23The sons of Dan: Hushim.

24The sons of Naphtali: Jahzeel, Guni, Jezer, and Shillem.

25These were the sons of Bilhah, whom Laban had given to his daughter Rachel; these she bore to Jacob--seven persons in all.

26Jacob's people who migrated to Egypt--his direct descendants, not counting the wives of Jacob's sons--numbered sixty-six persons in all.

27Together with Joseph's sons who were born to him in Egypt--two persons--all the people comprising Jacob's family who had come to Egypt amounted to seventy persons in all.

28Israel had sent Judah ahead to Joseph, so that he might meet him in Goshen. On his arrival in the region of Goshen,

29Joseph hitched the horses to his chariot and rode to meet his father Israel in Goshen. As soon as he saw him, he flung himself on his neck and wept a long time in his arms.

30And Israel said to Joseph, "At last I can die, now that I have seen for myself that Joseph is still alive."

31Joseph then said to his brothers and his father's household: "I will go and inform Pharaoh, telling him: 'My brothers and my father's household, whose home is in the land of Canaan, have come to me.

32The men are shepherds, having long been keepers of livestock; and they have brought with them their flocks and herds, as well as everything else they own.'

33So when Pharaoh summons you and asks what your occupation is,

34you must answer, 'We your servants, like our ancestors, have been keepers of livestock from the beginning until now,' in order that you may stay in the region of Goshen, since all shepherds are abhorrent to the Egyptians."

47Joseph went and told Pharaoh, "My father and my brothers have come from the land of Canaan, with their flocks and herds and everything else they own; and they are now in the region of Goshen."

2He then presented to Pharaoh five of his brothers whom he had selected from their full number.

3When Pharaoh asked them what their occupation was, they answered, "We, your servants, like our ancestors, are shepherds.

4We have come," they continued, "in order to stay in this country, for there is no pasture for your servants' flocks in the land of Canaan, so severe has the famine been there. Please, therefore, let your servants settle in the region of Goshen."

5Pharaoh said to Joseph, "They may settle in the region of Goshen; and if you know any of them to be qualified, you may put them in charge of my own livestock." Thus, when Jacob and his sons came to Joseph in Egypt, and Pharaoh, king of Egypt, heard about it, Pharaoh said to Joseph, "Now that your father and brothers have come to you,

6the land of Egypt is at your disposal; settle your father and brothers in the pick of the land."

7Then Joseph brought his father Jacob and presented him to Pharaoh. After Jacob had paid his respects to Pharaoh,

8Pharaoh asked him, "How many years have you lived?"

9Jacob replied: "The years I have lived as a wayfarer amount to a hundred and thirty. Few and hard have been these years of my life, and they do not compare with the years that my ancestors lived as wayfarers."

10Then Jacob bade Pharaoh farewell and withdrew from his presence.

11As Pharaoh had ordered, Joseph settled his father and brothers and gave them holdings in Egypt on the pick of the land, in the region of Rameses.

12And Joseph sustained his father and brothers and his father's whole household, down to the youngest, with food.

13Since there was no food in any country because of the extreme severity of the famine, and the lands of Egypt and Canaan were languishing from hunger,

14Joseph gathered in, as payment for the rations that were being dispensed, all the money that was to be found in Egypt and Canaan, and he put it in Pharaoh's palace.

15When all the money in Egypt and Canaan was spent, all the Egyptians came to Joseph, pleading, "Give us food or we shall perish under your eyes; for our money is gone."

16"Since your money is gone," replied Joseph, "give me your livestock, and I will sell you bread in return for your livestock."

17So they brought their livestock to Joseph, and he sold them food in return for their horses, their flocks of sheep and herds of cattle, and their donkeys. Thus he got them through that year with bread in exchange for all their livestock.

18When that year ended, they came to him in the following one and said: "We cannot hide from my lord that, with our money spent and our livestock made over to my lord, there is nothing left to put at my lord's disposal except our bodies and our farm land.

19Why should we and our land perish before your very eyes? Take us and our land in exchange for food, and we will become Pharaoh's slaves and our land his property; only give us seed, that we may survive and not perish, and that our land may not turn into a waste."

20Thus Joseph acquired all the farm land of Egypt for Pharaoh, since with the famine too much for them to bear, every Egyptian sold his field; so the land passed over to Pharaoh,

21and the people were reduced to slavery, from one end of Egypt's territory to the other.

22Only the priests' lands Joseph did not take over. Since the priests had a fixed allowance from Pharaoh and lived off the allowance Pharaoh had granted them, they did not have to sell their land.

23Joseph told the people: "Now that I have acquired you and your land for Pharaoh, here is your seed for sowing the land.

24But when the harvest is in, you must give a fifth of it to Pharaoh, while you keep four-fifths as seed for your fields and as food for yourselves and your families (and as food for your children)."

25"You have saved our lives!" they answered. "We are grateful to my lord that we can be Pharaoh's slaves."

26Thus Joseph made it a law for the land in Egypt, which is still in force, that a fifth of its produce should go to Pharaoh. Only the land of the priests did not pass over to Pharaoh.

27Thus Israel settled in the land of Egypt, in the region of Goshen. There they acquired property, were fertile, and increased greatly.

28Jacob lived in the land of Egypt for seventeen years; the span of his life came to a hundred and forty-seven years.

29When the time approached for Israel to die, he called his son Joseph and said to him: "If you really wish to please me, put your hand under my thigh as a sign of your constant loyalty to me; do not let me be buried in Egypt.

30When I lie down with my ancestors, have me taken out of Egypt and buried in their burial place."

31"I will do as you say," he replied. But his father demanded, "Swear it to me!" So Joseph swore to him. Then Israel bowed at the head of the bed.

48Some time afterward, Joseph was informed, "Your father is failing." So he took along with him his two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim.

2When Jacob was told, "Your son Joseph has come to you," he rallied his strength and sat up in bed.

3Jacob then said to Joseph: "God Almighty appeared to me at Luz in the land of Canaan, and blessing me,

4he said, 'I will make you fertile and numerous and raise you into an assembly of tribes, and I will give this land to your descendants after you as a permanent possession.'

5Your two sons, therefore, who were born to you in the land of Egypt before I joined you here, shall be mine; Ephraim and Manasseh shall be mine as much as Reuben and Simeon are mine.

6Progeny born to you after them shall remain yours; but their heritage shall be recorded in the names of their two brothers.

7I do this because, when I was returning from Paddan, your mother Rachel died, to my sorrow, during the journey in Canaan, while we were still a short distance from Ephrath; and I buried her there on the way to Ephrath (that is, Bethlehem)."

8When Israel saw Joseph's sons, he asked, "Who are these?"

9"They are my sons," Joseph answered his father, "whom God has given me here." "Bring them to me," said his father, "that I may bless them."

10(Now Israel's eyes were dim from age, and he could not see well.) When Joseph brought his sons close to him, he kissed and embraced them.

11Then Israel said to Joseph, "I never expected to see your face again, and now God has allowed me to see your descendants as well!"

12Joseph removed them from his father's knees and bowed down before him with his face to the ground.

13Then Joseph took the two, Ephraim with his right hand, to Israel's left, and Manasseh with his left hand, to Israel's right, and led them to him.

14But Israel, crossing his hands, put out his right hand and laid it on the head of Ephraim, although he was the younger, and his left hand on the head of Manasseh, although he was the first-born.

15Then he blessed them with these words: "May the God in whose ways my fathers Abraham and Isaac walked, The God who has been my shepherd from my birth to this day,

16The Angel who has delivered me from all harm, bless these boys That in them my name be recalled, and the names of my fathers, Abraham and Isaac, And they may become teeming multitudes upon the earth!"

17When Joseph saw that his father had laid his right hand on Ephraim's head, this seemed wrong to him; so he took hold of his father's hand, to remove it from Ephraim's head to Manasseh's,

18saying, "That is not right, father; the other one is the first-born; lay your right hand on his head!"

19But his father resisted. "I know it, son," he said, "I know. That one too shall become a tribe, and he too shall be great. Nevertheless, his younger brother shall surpass him, and his descendants shall become a multitude of nations."

20So when he blessed them that day and said, "By you shall the people of Israel pronounce blessings; may they say, 'God make you like Ephraim and Manasseh,'" he placed Ephraim before Manasseh.

21Then Israel said to Joseph: "I am about to die. But God will be with you and will restore you to the land of your fathers.

22As for me, I give to you, as to the one above his brothers, Shechem, which I captured from the Amorites with my sword and bow."

49Jacob called his sons and said: "Gather around, that I may tell you what is to happen to you in days to come.

2"Assemble and listen, sons of Jacob, listen to Israel, your father.

3"You, Reuben, my first-born, my strength and the first fruit of my manhood, excelling in rank and excelling in power!

4Unruly as water, you shall no longer excel, for you climbed into your father's bed and defiled my couch to my sorrow.

5"Simeon and Levi, brothers indeed, weapons of violence are their knives.

6Let not my soul enter their council, or my spirit be joined with their company; For in their fury they slew men, in their willfulness they maimed oxen.

7Cursed be their fury so fierce, and their rage so cruel! I will scatter them in Jacob, disperse them throughout Israel.

8"You, Judah, shall your brothers praise --your hand on the neck of your enemies; the sons of your father shall bow down to you.

9Judah, like a lion's whelp, you have grown up on prey, my son. He crouches like a lion recumbent, the king of beasts--who would dare rouse him?

10The scepter shall never depart from Judah, or the mace from between his legs, While tribute is brought to him, and he receives the people's homage.

11He tethers his donkey to the vine, his purebred ass to the choicest stem. In wine he washes his garments his robe in the blood of grapes.

12His eyes are darker than wine, and his teeth are whiter than milk.

13"Zebulun shall dwell by the seashore (This means a shore for ships), and his flank shall be based on Sidon.

14"Issachar is a rawboned ass, crouching between the saddlebags.

15When he saw how good a settled life was, and how pleasant the country, He bent his shoulder to the burden and became a toiling serf.

16"Dan shall achieve justice for his kindred like any other tribe of Israel.

17Let Dan be a serpent by the roadside, a horned viper by the path, That bites the horse's heel, so that the rider tumbles backward.

18"(I long for your deliverance, O LORD!)

19"Gad shall be raided by raiders, but he shall raid at their heels.

20"Asher's produce is rich, and he shall furnish dainties for kings.

21"Naphtali is a hind let loose which brings forth lovely fawns.

22"Joseph is a wild colt ,a wild colt by a spring, a wild ass on a hillside.

23Harrying and attacking, the archers opposed him;

24But each one's bow remained stiff, as their arms were unsteady, By the power of the Mighty One of Jacob, because of the Shepherd, the Rock of Israel,

25The God of your father, who helps you, God Almighty, who blesses you, With the blessings of the heavens above, the blessings of the abyss that crouches below, The blessings of breasts and womb,

26the blessings of fresh grain and blossoms, The blessings of the everlasting mountains, the delights of the eternal hills. May they rest on the head of Joseph, on the brow of the prince among his brothers.

27"Benjamin is a ravenous wolf; mornings he devours the prey, and evenings he distributes the spoils."

28All these are the twelve tribes of Israel, and this is what their father said about them, as he bade them farewell and gave to each of them an appropriate message.

29Then he gave them this charge: "Since I am about to be taken to my kindred, bury me with my fathers in the cave that lies in the field of Ephron the Hittite,

30the cave in the field of Machpelah, facing on Mamre, in the land of Canaan, the field that Abraham bought from Ephron the Hittite for a burial ground.

31There Abraham and his wife Sarah are buried, and so are Isaac and his wife Rebekah, and there, too, I buried Leah--

32the field and the cave in it that had been purchased from the Hittites."

33When Jacob had finished giving these instructions to his sons, he drew his feet into the bed, breathed his last, and was taken to his kindred.

50Joseph threw himself on his father's face and wept over him as he kissed him.

2Then he ordered the physicians in his service to embalm his father. When they embalmed Israel,

3they spent forty days at it, for that is the full period of embalming; and the Egyptians mourned him for seventy days.

4When that period of mourning was over, Joseph spoke to Pharaoh's courtiers. "Please do me this favor," he said, "and convey to Pharaoh this request of mine.

5Since my father, at the point of death, made me promise on oath to bury him in the tomb that he had prepared for himself in the land of Canaan, may I go up there to bury my father and then come back?"

6Pharaoh replied, "Go and bury your father, as he made you promise on oath."

7So Joseph left to bury his father; and with him went all of Pharaoh's officials who were senior members of his court and all the other dignitaries of Egypt,

8as well as Joseph's whole household, his brothers, and his father's household; only their children and their flocks and herds were left in the region of Goshen.

9Chariots, too, and charioteers went up with him; it was a very large retinue.

10When they arrived at Goren-ha-atad, which is beyond the Jordan, they held there a very great and solemn memorial service; and Joseph observed seven days of mourning for his father.

11When the Canaanites who inhabited the land saw the mourning at Goren-ha-atad, they said, "This is a solemn funeral the Egyptians are having." That is why the place was named Abel-mizraim. It is beyond the Jordan.

12Thus Jacob's sons did for him as he had instructed them.

13They carried him to the land of Canaan and buried him in the cave in the field of Machpelah, facing on Mamre, the field that Abraham had bought for a burial ground from Ephron the Hittite.

14After Joseph had buried his father he returned to Egypt, together with his brothers and all who had gone up with him for the burial of his father.

15Now that their father was dead, Joseph's brothers became fearful and thought, "Suppose Joseph has been nursing a grudge against us and now plans to pay us back in full for all the wrong we did him!"

16So they approached Joseph and said: "Before your father died, he gave us these instructions:

17'You shall say to Joseph, Jacob begs you to forgive the criminal wrongdoing of your brothers, who treated you so cruelly.' Please, therefore, forgive the crime that we, the servants of your father's God, committed." When they spoke these words to him, Joseph broke into tears.

18Then his brothers proceeded to fling themselves down before him and said, "Let us be your slaves!"

19But Joseph replied to them: "Have no fear. Can I take the place of God?

20Even though you meant harm to me, God meant it for good, to achieve his present end, the survival of many people.

21Therefore have no fear. I will provide for you and for your children." By thus speaking kindly to them, he reassured them.

22Joseph remained in Egypt, together with his father's family. He lived a hundred and ten years.

23He saw Ephraim's children to the third generation, and the children of Manasseh's son Machir were also born on Joseph's knees.

24Joseph said to his brothers: "I am about to die. God will surely take care of you and lead you out of this land to the land that he promised on oath to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob."

25Then, putting the sons of Israel under oath, he continued, "When God thus takes care of you, you must bring my bones up with you from this place."

26Joseph died at the age of a hundred and ten. He was embalmed and laid to rest in a coffin in Egypt.


 


Exodus


1These are the names of the sons of Israel who, accompanied by their households, migrated with Jacob into Egypt:

2Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Judah;

3Issachar, Zebulun and Benjamin;

4Dan and Naphtali; Gad and Asher.

5The total number of the direct descendants of Jacob was seventy. Joseph was already in Egypt.

6Now Joseph and all his brothers and that whole generation died.

7But the Israelites were fruitful and prolific. They became so numerous and strong that the land was filled with them.

8Then a new king, who knew nothing of Joseph , came to power in Egypt.

9He said to his subjects, "Look how numerous and powerful the Israelite people are growing, more so than we ourselves!

10Come, let us deal shrewdly with them to stop their increase; otherwise, in time of war they too may join our enemies to fight against us, and so leave our country."

11Accordingly, taskmasters were set over the Israelites to oppress them with forced labor. Thus they had to build for Pharaoh the supply cities of Pithom and Raamses.

12Yet the more they were oppressed, the more they multiplied and spread. The Egyptians, then, dreaded the Israelites

13and reduced them to cruel slavery,

14making life bitter for them with hard work in mortar and brick and all kinds of field work--the whole cruel fate of slaves.

15The king of Egypt told the Hebrew midwives, one of whom was called Shiphrah and the other Puah,

16When you act as midwives for the Hebrew women and see them giving birth, if it is a boy, kill him; but if it is a girl, she may live."

17The midwives, however, feared God; they did not do as the king of Egypt had ordered them, but let the boys live.

18So the king summoned the midwives and asked them, "Why have you acted thus, allowing the boys to live?"

19The midwives answered Pharaoh, "The Hebrew women are not like the Egyptian women. They are robust and give birth before the midwife arrives."

20Therefore God dealt well with the midwives. The people, too, increased and grew strong.

21And because the midwives feared God, he built up families for them.

22Pharaoh then commanded all his subjects, "Throw into the river every boy that is born to the Hebrews, but you may let all the girls live."

2Now a certain man of the house of Levi married a Levite woman,

2who conceived and bore a son. Seeing that he was a goodly child, she hid him for three months.

3When she could hide him no longer, she took a papyrus basket, daubed it with bitumen and pitch, and putting the child in it, placed it among the reeds on the river bank.

4His sister stationed herself at a distance to find out what would happen to him.

5Pharaoh's daughter came down to the river to bathe, while her maids walked along the river bank. Noticing the basket among the reeds, she sent her handmaid to fetch it.

6On opening it, she looked, and lo, there was a baby boy, crying! She was moved with pity for him and said, "It is one of the Hebrews' children."

7Then his sister asked Pharaoh's daughter, "Shall I go and call one of the Hebrew women to nurse the child for you?"

8"Yes, do so," she answered. So the maiden went and called the child's own mother.

9Pharaoh's daughter said to her, "Take this child and nurse it for me, and I will repay you." The woman therefore took the child and nursed it.

10When the child grew, she brought him to Pharaoh's daughter, who adopted him as her son and called him Moses; for she said, "I drew him out of the water."

11On one occasion, after Moses had grown up, when he visited his kinsmen and witnessed their forced labor, he saw an Egyptian striking a Hebrew, one of his own kinsmen.

12Looking about and seeing no one, he slew the Egyptian and hid him in the sand.

13The next day he went out again, and now two Hebrews were fighting! So he asked the culprit, "Why are you striking your fellow Hebrew?"

14But he replied, "Who has appointed you ruler and judge over us? Are you thinking of killing me as you killed the Egyptian?" Then Moses became afraid and thought, "The affair must certainly be known."

15Pharaoh, too, heard of the affair and sought to put him to death. But Moses fled from him and stayed in the land of Midian. As he was seated there by a well,

16seven daughters of a priest of Midian came to draw water and fill the troughs to water their father's flock.

17But some shepherds came and drove them away. Then Moses got up and defended them and watered their flock.

18When they returned to their father Reuel, he said to them, "How is it you have returned so soon today?"

19They answered, "An Egyptian saved us from the interference of the shepherds. He even drew water for us and watered the flock!"

20"Where is the man?" he asked his daughters. "Why did you leave him there? Invite him to have something to eat."

21Moses agreed to live with him, and the man gave him his daughter Zipporah in marriage.

22She bore him a son, whom he named Gershom; for he said, "I am a stranger in a foreign land."

23A long time passed, during which the king of Egypt died. Still the Israelites groaned and cried out because of their slavery. As their cry for release went up to God,

24he heard their groaning and was mindful of his covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.

25He saw the Israelites and knew. . . .

3Meanwhile Moses was tending the flock of his father-in-law Jethro, the priest of Midian. Leading the flock across the desert, he came to Horeb, the mountain of God.

2There an angel of the LORD appeared to him in fire flaming out of a bush. As he looked on, he was surprised to see that the bush, though on fire, was not consumed.

3So Moses decided, "I must go over to look at this remarkable sight, and see why the bush is not burned."

4When the LORD saw him coming over to look at it more closely, God called out to him from the bush, "Moses! Moses!" He answered, "Here I am."

5God said, "Come no nearer! Remove the sandals from your feet, for the place where you stand is holy ground.

6I am the God of your father," he continued, "the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob." Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look at God.

7But the LORD said, "I have witnessed the affliction of my people in Egypt and have heard their cry of complaint against their slave drivers, so I know well what they are suffering.

8Therefore I have come down to rescue them from the hands of the Egyptians and lead them out of that land into a good and spacious land, a land flowing with milk and honey, the country of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites.

9So indeed the cry of the Israelites has reached me, and I have truly noted that the Egyptians are oppressing them.

10Come, now! I will send you to Pharaoh to lead my people, the Israelites, out of Egypt."

11But Moses said to God, "Who am I that I should go to Pharaoh and lead the Israelites out of Egypt?"

12He answered, "I will be with you; and this shall be your proof that it is I who have sent you: when you bring my people out of Egypt, you will worship God on this very mountain."

13"But," said Moses to God, "when I go to the Israelites and say to them, 'The God of your fathers has sent me to you,' if they ask me, 'What is his name?' what am I to tell them?"

14God replied, "I am who am." Then he added, "This is what you shall tell the Israelites: I AM sent me to you."

15God spoke further to Moses, "Thus shall you say to the Israelites: The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob, has sent me to you. "This is my name forever; this is my title for all generations.

16"Go and assemble the elders of the Israelites, and tell them: The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, has appeared to me and said: I am concerned about you and about the way you are being treated in Egypt;

17so I have decided to lead you up out of the misery of Egypt into the land of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites, a land flowing with milk and honey.

18"Thus they will heed your message. Then you and the elders of Israel shall go to the king of Egypt and say to him: The LORD, the God of the Hebrews, has sent us word. Permit us, then, to go a three days' journey in the desert, that we may offer sacrifice to the LORD, our God.

19"Yet I know that the king of Egypt will not allow you to go unless he is forced.

20I will stretch out my hand, therefore, and smite Egypt by doing all kinds of wondrous deeds there. After that he will send you away.

21I will even make the Egyptians so well-disposed toward this people that, when you leave, you will not go empty-handed.

22Every woman shall ask her neighbor and her house guest for silver and gold articles and for clothing to put on your sons and daughters. Thus you will despoil the Egyptians."

4"But," objected Moses, "suppose they will not believe me, nor listen to my plea? For they may say, 'The LORD did not appear to you.'"

2The LORD therefore asked him, "What is that in your hand?" "A staff," he answered.

3The LORD then said, "Throw it on the ground." When he threw it on the ground it was changed into a serpent, and Moses shied away from it.

4"Now, put out your hand," the LORD said to him, "and take hold of its tail." So he put out his hand and laid hold of it, and it became a staff in his hand.

5"This will take place so that they may believe," he continued, "that the LORD, the God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob, did appear to you."

6Again the LORD said to him, "Put your hand in your bosom." He put it in his bosom, and when he withdrew it, to his surprise his hand was leprous, like snow.

7The LORD then said, "Now, put your hand back in your bosom." Moses put his hand back in his bosom, and when he withdrew it, to his surprise it was again like the rest of his body.

8"If they will not believe you, nor heed the message of the first sign, they should believe the message of the second.

9And if they will not believe even these two signs, nor heed your plea, take some water from the river and pour it on the dry land. The water you take from the river will become blood on the dry land."

10Moses, however, said to the LORD, "If you please, LORD, I have never been eloquent, neither in the past, nor recently, nor now that you have spoken to your servant; but I am slow of speech and tongue."

11The LORD said to him, "Who gives one man speech and makes another deaf and dumb? Or who gives sight to one and makes another blind? Is it not I, the LORD?

12Go, then! It is I who will assist you in speaking and will teach you what you are to say."

13Yet he insisted, "If you please, Lord, send someone else!"

14Then the LORD became angry with Moses and said, "Have you not your brother, Aaron the Levite? I know that he is an eloquent speaker. Besides, he is now on his way to meet you.

15When he sees you, his heart will be glad. You are to speak to him, then, and put the words in his mouth. I will assist both you and him in speaking and will teach the two of you what you are to do.

16He shall speak to the people for you: he shall be your spokesman, and you shall be as God to him.

17Take this staff in your hand; with it you are to perform the signs."

18After this Moses returned to his father-in-law Jethro and said to him, "Let me go back, please, to my kinsmen in Egypt, to see whether they are still living." Jethro replied, "Go in peace."

19In Midian the LORD said to Moses, "Go back to Egypt, for all the men who sought your life are dead."

20So Moses took his wife and his sons, and started back to the land of Egypt, with them riding the ass. The staff of God he carried with him.

21The LORD said to him, "On your return to Egypt, see that you perform before Pharaoh all the wonders I have put in your power. I will make him obstinate, however, so that he will not let the people go.

22So you shall say to Pharaoh: Thus says the LORD: Israel is my son, my first-born.

23Hence I tell you: Let my son go, that he may serve me. If you refuse to let him go, I warn you, I will kill your son, your first-born."

24On the journey, at a place where they spent the night, the Lord came upon Moses and would have killed him.

25But Zipporah took a piece of flint and cut off her son's foreskin and, touching his person, she said, "You are a spouse of blood to me."

26Then God let Moses go. At that time she said, "A spouse of blood," in regard to the circumcision.

27The LORD said to Aaron, "Go into the desert to meet Moses." So he went, and when they met at the mountain of God, Aaron kissed him.

28Moses informed him of all the LORD had said in sending him, and of the various signs he had enjoined upon him.

29Then Moses and Aaron went and assembled all the elders of the Israelites.

30Aaron told them everything the LORD had said to Moses, and he performed the signs before the people.

31The people believed, and when they heard that the LORD was concerned about them and had seen their affliction, they bowed down in worship.

5After that, Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and said, "Thus says the LORD, the God of Israel: Let my people go, that they may celebrate a feast to me in the desert."

2Pharaoh answered, "Who is the LORD, that I should heed his plea to let Israel go? I do not know the LORD; even if I did, I would not let Israel go."

3They replied, "The God of the Hebrews has sent us word. Let us go a three days' journey in the desert, that we may offer sacrifice to the LORD, our God; otherwise he will punish us with pestilence or the sword."

4The king of Egypt answered them, "What do you mean, Moses and Aaron, by taking the people away from their work? Off to your labor!

5Look how numerous the people of the land are already," continued Pharaoh, "and yet you would give them rest from their labor!"

6That very day Pharaoh gave the taskmasters and foremen of the people this order:

7"You shall no longer supply the people with straw for their brickmaking as you have previously done. Let them go and gather straw themselves!

8Yet you shall levy upon them the same quota of bricks as they have previously made. Do not reduce it. They are lazy; that is why they are crying, 'Let us go to offer sacrifice to our God.'

9Increase the work for the men, so that they keep their mind on it and pay no attention to lying words."

10So the taskmasters and foremen of the people went out and told them, "Thus says Pharaoh: I will not provide you with straw.

11Go and gather the straw yourselves, wherever you can find it. Yet there must not be the slightest reduction in your work."

12The people, then, scattered throughout the land of Egypt to gather stubble for straw,

13while the taskmasters kept driving them on, saying, "Finish your work, the same daily amount as when your straw was supplied."

14The foremen of the Israelites, whom the taskmasters of Pharaoh had placed over them, were beaten, and were asked, "Why have you not completed your prescribed amount of bricks yesterday and today, as before?"

15Then the Israelite foremen came and made this appeal to Pharaoh: "Why do you treat your servants in this manner?

16No straw is supplied to your servants, and still we are told to make bricks. Look how your servants are beaten! It is you who are at fault."

17Pharaoh answered, "It is just because you are lazy that you keep saying, 'Let us go and offer sacrifice to the LORD.'

18Off to work, then! Straw shall not be provided for you, but you must still deliver your quota of bricks."

19The Israelite foremen knew they were in a sorry plight, having been told not to reduce the daily amount of bricks.

20When, therefore, they left Pharaoh and came upon Moses and Aaron, who were waiting to meet them,

21they said to them, "The LORD look upon you and judge! You have brought us into bad odor with Pharaoh and his servants and have put a sword in their hands to slay us."

22Moses again had recourse to the LORD and said, "Lord, why do you treat this people so badly? And why did you send me on such a mission?

23Ever since I went to Pharaoh to speak in your name, he has maltreated this people of yours, and you have done nothing to rescue them."

6Then the LORD answered Moses, "Now you shall see what I will do to Pharaoh. Forced by my mighty hand, he will send them away; compelled by my outstretched arm, he will drive them from his land."

2God also said to Moses, "I am the LORD.

3As God the Almighty I appeared to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, but my name, LORD, I did not make known to them.

4I also established my covenant with them, to give them the land of Canaan, the land in which they were living as aliens.

5And now that I have heard the groaning of the Israelites, whom the Egyptians are treating as slaves, I am mindful of my covenant.

6Therefore, say to the Israelites: I am the LORD. I will free you from the forced labor of the Egyptians and will deliver you from their slavery. I will rescue you by my outstretched arm and with mighty acts of judgment.

7I will take you as my own people, and you shall have me as your God. You will know that I, the LORD, am your God when I free you from the labor of the Egyptians

8and bring you into the land which I swore to give to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. I will give it to you as your own possession--I, the LORD!"

9But when Moses told this to the Israelites, they would not listen to him because of their dejection and hard slavery.

10Then the LORD said to Moses,

11"Go and tell Pharaoh, king of Egypt, to let the Israelites leave his land."

12But Moses protested to the LORD, "If the Israelites would not listen to me, how can it be that Pharaoh will listen to me, poor speaker that I am!"

13Still, the LORD, to bring the Israelites out of Egypt, spoke to Moses and Aaron and gave them his orders regarding both the Israelites and Pharaoh, king of Egypt.

14These are the heads of the ancestral houses. The sons of Reuben, the first-born of Israel, were Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron and Carmi; these are the clans of Reuben.

15The sons of Simeon were Jenuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jachin, Zohar and Shaul, who was the son of a Canaanite woman; these are the clans of Simeon.

16The names of the sons of Levi, in their genealogical order, are Gershon, Kohath and Merari. Levi lived one hundred and thirty-seven years.

17The sons of Gershon, as heads of clans, were Libni and Shimei.

18The sons of Kohath were Amram, Izhar, Hebron and Uzziel. Kohath lived one hundred and thirty-three years.

19The sons of Merari were Mahli and Mushi. These are the clans of Levi in their genealogical order.

20Amram married his aunt Jochebed, who bore him Aaron, Moses and Miriam. Amram lived one hundred and thirty-seven years.

21The sons of Izhar were Korah, Nepheg and Zichri.

22The sons of Uzziel were Mishael, Elzaphan and Sithri.

23Aaron married Amminadab's daughter, Elisheba, the sister of Nahshon; she bore him Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar.

24The sons of Korah were Assir, Elkanah and Abiasaph. These are the clans of the Korahites.

25Aaron's son, Eleazar, married one of Putiel's daughters, who bore him Phinehas. These are the heads of the ancestral clans of the Levites.

26This is the Aaron and this the Moses to whom the LORD said, "Lead the Israelites from the land of Egypt, company by company."

27These are the ones who spoke to Pharaoh, king of Egypt, to bring the Israelites out of Egypt--the same Moses and Aaron.

28On the day the LORD spoke to Moses in Egypt

29he said, "I am the LORD. Repeat to Pharaoh, king of Egypt, all that I tell you."

30But Moses protested to the LORD, "Since I am a poor speaker, how can it be that Pharaoh will listen to me?"

7The LORD answered him, "See! I have made you as God to Pharaoh, and Aaron your brother shall act as your prophet.

2You shall tell him all that I command you. In turn, your brother Aaron shall tell Pharaoh to let the Israelites leave his land.

3Yet I will make Pharaoh so obstinate that, despite the many signs and wonders that I will work in the land of Egypt,

4he will not listen to you. Therefore I will lay my hand on Egypt and by great acts of judgment I will bring the hosts of my people, the Israelites, out of the land of Egypt,

5so that the Egyptians may learn that I am the LORD, as I stretch out my hand against Egypt and lead the Israelites out of their midst."

6Moses and Aaron did as the LORD had commanded them.

7Moses was eighty years old and Aaron eighty-three when they spoke to Pharaoh.

8The LORD told Moses and Aaron,

9"If Pharaoh demands that you work a sign or wonder, you shall say to Aaron: Take your staff and throw it down before Pharaoh, and it will be changed into a snake."

10Then Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and did as the LORD had commanded. Aaron threw his staff down before Pharaoh and his servants, and it was changed into a snake.

11Pharaoh, in turn, summoned wise men and sorcerers, and they also, the magicians of Egypt, did likewise by their magic arts.

12Each one threw down his staff, and it was changed into a snake. But Aaron's staff swallowed their staffs.

13Pharaoh, however, was obstinate and would not listen to them, just as the LORD had foretold.

14Then the LORD said to Moses, "Pharaoh is obdurate in refusing to let the people go.

15Tomorrow morning, when he sets out for the water, go and present yourself by the river bank, holding in your hand the staff that turned into a serpent.

16Say to him: The LORD, the God of the Hebrews, sent me to you with the message: Let my people go to worship me in the desert. But as yet you have not listened.

17The LORD now says: This is how you shall know that I am the LORD. I will strike the water of the river with the staff I hold, and it shall be changed into blood.

18The fish in the river shall die, and the river itself shall become so polluted that the Egyptians will be unable to drink its water."

19The LORD then said to Moses, "Say to Aaron: Take your staff and stretch out your hand over the waters of Egypt--their streams and canals and pools, all their supplies of water--that they may become blood. Throughout the land of Egypt there shall be blood, even in the wooden pails and stone jars."

20Moses and Aaron did as the LORD had commanded. Aaron raised his staff and struck the waters of the river in full view of Pharaoh and his servants, and all the water of the river was changed into blood.

21The fish in the river died, and the river itself became so polluted that the Egyptians could not drink its water. There was blood throughout the land of Egypt.

22But the Egyptian magicians did the same by their magic arts. So Pharaoh remained obstinate and would not listen to Moses and Aaron, just as the LORD had foretold.

23He turned away and went into his house, with no concern even for this.

24All the Egyptians had to dig in the neighborhood of the river for drinking water, since they could not drink the river water.

25Seven days passed after the LORD had struck the river.

26Then the LORD said to Moses, "Go to Pharaoh and tell him: Thus says the LORD: Let my people go to worship me.

27If you refuse to let them go, I warn you, I will send a plague of frogs over all your territory.

28The river will teem with frogs. They will come up into your palace and into your bedroom and onto your bed, into the houses of your servants, too, and your subjects, even into your ovens and your kneading bowls.

29The frogs will swarm all over you and your subjects and your servants."

8The LORD then told Moses, "Say to Aaron: Stretch out your hand and your staff over the streams and canals and pools, to make frogs overrun the land of Egypt."

2Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt, and the frogs came up and covered the land of Egypt.

3But the magicians did the same by their magic arts. They, too, made frogs overrun the land of Egypt.

4Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and said, "Pray the LORD to remove the frogs from me and my subjects, and I will let the people go to offer sacrifice to the LORD."

5Moses answered Pharaoh, "Do me the favor of appointing the time when I am to pray for you and your servants and your subjects, that the frogs may be taken away from you and your houses and be left only in the river."

6"Tomorrow," said Pharaoh. Then Moses replied, "It shall be as you have said, so that you may learn that there is none like the LORD, our God.

7The frogs shall leave you and your houses, your servants and your subjects; only in the river shall they be left."

8After Moses and Aaron left Pharaoh's presence, Moses implored the LORD to fulfill the promise he had made to Pharaoh about the frogs;

9and the LORD did as Moses had asked. The frogs in the houses and courtyards and fields died off.

10Heaps and heaps of them were gathered up, and there was a stench in the land.

11But when Pharaoh saw that there was a respite, he became obdurate and would not listen to them, just as the LORD had foretold.

12Thereupon the LORD said to Moses, "Tell Aaron to stretch out his staff and strike the dust of the earth, that it may be turned into gnats throughout the land of Egypt."

13They did so. Aaron stretched out his hand, and with his staff he struck the dust of the earth, and gnats came upon man and beast. The dust of the earth was turned into gnats throughout the land of Egypt.

14Though the magicians tried to bring forth gnats by their magic arts, they could not do so. As the gnats infested man and beast,

15the magicians said to Pharaoh, "This is the finger of God." Yet Pharaoh remained obstinate and would not listen to them, just as the LORD had foretold.

16Again the LORD told Moses, "Early tomorrow morning present yourself to Pharaoh when he goes forth to the water, and say to him: Thus says the LORD: Let my people go to worship me.

17If you will not let my people go, I warn you, I will loose swarms of flies upon you and your servants and your subjects and your houses. The houses of the Egyptians and the very ground on which they stand shall be filled with swarms of flies.

18But on that day I will make an exception of the land of Goshen: there shall be no flies where my people dwell, that you may know that I am the LORD in the midst of the earth.

19I will make this distinction between my people and your people. This sign shall take place tomorrow."

20This the LORD did. Thick swarms of flies entered the house of Pharaoh and the houses of his servants; throughout Egypt the land was infested with flies.

21Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and said to them, "Go and offer sacrifice to your God in this land."

22But Moses replied, "It is not right to do so, for the sacrifices we offer to the LORD, our God, are an abomination to the Egyptians. If before their very eyes we offer sacrifices which are an abomination to them, will not the Egyptians stone us?

23We must go a three days' journey in the desert to offer sacrifice to the LORD, our God, as he commands us."

24"Well, then," said Pharaoh, "I will let you go to offer sacrifice to the LORD, your God, in the desert, provided that you do not go too far away and that you pray for me."

25Moses answered, "As soon as I leave your presence I will pray to the LORD that the flies may depart tomorrow from Pharaoh and his servants and his subjects. Pharaoh, however, must not play false again by refusing to let the people go to offer sacrifice to the LORD."

26When Moses left Pharaoh's presence, he prayed to the LORD;

27and the LORD did as Moses had asked. He removed the flies from Pharaoh and his servants and subjects. Not one remained.

28But once more Pharaoh became obdurate and would not let the people go.

9Then the LORD said to Moses, "Go to Pharaoh and tell him: Thus says the LORD, the God of the Hebrews: Let my people go to worship me.

2If you refuse to let them go and persist in holding them,

3I warn you, the LORD will afflict all your livestock in the field--your horses, asses, camels, herds and flocks--with a very severe pestilence.

4But the LORD will distinguish between the livestock of Israel and that of Egypt, so that none belonging to the Israelites will die."

5And setting a definite time, the LORD added, "Tomorrow the LORD shall do this in the land."

6And on the next day the LORD did so. All the livestock of the Egyptians died, but not one beast belonging to the Israelites.

7But though Pharaoh's messengers informed him that not even one beast belonging to the Israelites had died, he still remained obdurate and would not let the people go.

8Then the LORD said to Moses and Aaron, "Take a double handful of soot from a furnace, and in the presence of Pharaoh let Moses scatter it toward the sky.

9It will then turn into fine dust over the whole land of Egypt and cause festering boils on man and beast throughout the land."

10So they took soot from a furnace and stood in the presence of Pharaoh. Moses scattered it toward the sky, and it caused festering boils on man and beast.

11The magicians could not stand in Moses' presence, for there were boils on the magicians no less than on the rest of the Egyptians.

12But the LORD made Pharaoh obstinate, and he would not listen to them, just as the LORD had foretold to Moses.

13Then the LORD told Moses, "Early tomorrow morning present yourself to Pharaoh and say to him: Thus says the LORD, the God of the Hebrews: Let my people go to worship me,

14or this time I will hurl all my blows upon you and your servants and your subjects, that you may know that there is none like me anywhere on earth.

15For by now I would have stretched out my hand and struck you and your subjects with such pestilence as would wipe you from the earth.

16But this is why I have spared you: to show you my power and to make my name resound throughout the earth!

17Will you still block the way for my people by refusing to let them go?

18I warn you, then, tomorrow at this hour I will rain down such fierce hail as there has never been in Egypt from the day the nation was founded up to the present.

19Therefore, order all your livestock and whatever else you have in the open fields to be brought to a place of safety. Whatever man or beast remains in the fields and is not brought to shelter shall die when the hail comes upon them."

20Some of Pharaoh's servants feared the warning of the LORD and hurried their servants and livestock off to shelter.

21Others, however, did not take the warning of the LORD to heart and left their servants and livestock in the fields.

22The LORD then said to Moses, "Stretch out your hand toward the sky, that hail may fall upon the entire land of Egypt, on man and beast and every growing thing in the land of Egypt."

23When Moses stretched out his staff toward the sky, the LORD sent forth hail and peals of thunder. Lightning flashed toward the earth, and the LORD rained down hail upon the land of Egypt;

23But Pharaoh, seeing that the rain and hail and thunder had ceased, sinned again: he with his servants became obdurate,

24and lightning constantly flashed through the hail, such fierce hail as had never been seen in the land since Egypt became a nation.

25It struck down every man and beast that was in the open throughout the land of Egypt; it beat down every growing thing and splintered every tree in the fields.

26Only in the land of Goshen, where the Israelites dwelt, was there no hail.

27Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and said to them, "I have sinned again! The LORD is just; it is I and my subjects who are at fault.

28Pray to the LORD, for we have had enough of God's thunder and hail. Then I will let you go; you need stay no longer."

29Moses replied, "As soon as I leave the city I will extend my hands to the LORD; the thunder will cease, and there will be no more hail. Thus you shall learn that the earth is the LORD'S.

30But you and your servants, I know, do not yet fear the LORD God."

31Now the flax and the barley were ruined, because the barley was in ear and the flax in bud.

32But the wheat and the spelt were not ruined, for they grow later.

33When Moses had left Pharaoh's presence and had gone out of the city, he extended his hands to the LORD. Then the thunder and the hail ceased, and the rain no longer poured down upon the earth.

35and in his obstinacy he would not let the Israelites go, as the LORD had foretold through Moses.

10Then the LORD said to Moses, "Go to Pharaoh, for I have made him and his servants obdurate in order that I may perform these signs of mine among them

2and that you may recount to your son and grandson how ruthlessly I dealt with the Egyptians and what signs I wrought among them, so that you may know that I am the LORD."

3So Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and told him, "Thus says the LORD, the God of the Hebrews: How long will you refuse to submit to me? Let my people go to worship me.

4If you refuse to let my people go, I warn you, tomorrow I will bring locusts into your country.

5They shall cover the ground, so that the ground itself will not be visible. They shall eat up the remnant you saved unhurt from the hail, as well as all the foliage that has since sprouted in your fields.

6They shall fill your houses and the houses of your servants and of all the Egyptians; such a sight your fathers or grandfathers have not seen from the day they first settled on this soil up to the present day." With that he turned and left Pharaoh.

7But Pharaoh's servants said to him, "How long must he be a menace to us? Let the men go to worship the LORD, their God. Do you not yet realize that Egypt is being destroyed?"

8So Moses and Aaron were brought back to Pharaoh, who said to them, "You may go and worship the LORD, your God. But how many of you will go?"

9"Young and old must go with us," Moses answered, "our sons and daughters as well as our flocks and herds must accompany us. That is what a feast of the LORD means to us."

10"The LORD help you," Pharaoh replied, "if I ever let your little ones go with you! Clearly, you have some evil in mind.

11No, no! Just you men can go and worship the LORD. After all, that is what you want." With that they were driven from Pharaoh's presence.

12The LORD then said to Moses, "Stretch out your hand over the land of Egypt, that locusts may swarm over it and eat up all the vegetation and whatever the hail has left."

13So Moses stretched out his staff over the land of Egypt, and the LORD sent an east wind blowing over the land all that day and all that night. At dawn the east wind brought the locusts.

14They swarmed over the whole land of Egypt and settled down on every part of it. Never before had there been such a fierce swarm of locusts, nor will there ever be.

15They covered the surface of the whole land, till it was black with them. They ate up all the vegetation in the land and the fruit of whatever trees the hail had spared. Nothing green was left on any tree or plant throughout the land of Egypt.

16Hastily Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and said, "I have sinned against the LORD, your God, and against you.

17But now, do forgive me my sin once more, and pray the LORD, your God, to take at least this deadly pest from me."

18When Moses left the presence of Pharaoh, he prayed to the LORD,

19and the LORD changed the wind to a very strong west wind, which took up the locusts and hurled them into the Red Sea. But though not a single locust remained within the confines of Egypt,

20the LORD made Pharaoh obstinate, and he would not let the Israelites go.

21Then the LORD said to Moses, "Stretch out your hand toward the sky, that over the land of Egypt there may be such intense darkness that one can feel it."

22So Moses stretched out his hand toward the sky, and there was dense darkness throughout the land of Egypt for three days.

23Men could not see one another, nor could they move from where they were, for three days. But all the Israelites had light where they dwelt.

24Pharaoh then summoned Moses and Aaron and said, "Go and worship the LORD. Your little ones, too, may go with you. But your flocks and herds must remain."

25Moses replied, "You must also grant us sacrifices and holocausts to offer up to the LORD, our God.

26Hence, our livestock also must go with us. Not an animal must be left behind. Some of them we must sacrifice to the LORD, our God, but we ourselves shall not know which ones we must sacrifice to him until we arrive at the place itself."

27But the LORD made Pharaoh obstinate, and he would not let them go.

28"Leave my presence," Pharaoh said to him, "and see to it that you do not appear before me again! The day you appear before me you shall die!"

29Moses replied, "Well said! I will never appear before you again."

11Then the LORD told Moses, "One more plague will I bring upon Pharaoh and upon Egypt. After that he will let you depart. In fact, he will not merely let you go; he will drive you away.

2Instruct your people that every man is to ask his neighbor, and every woman her neighbor, for silver and gold articles and for clothing."

3The LORD indeed made the Egyptians well-disposed toward the people; Moses himself was very highly regarded by Pharaoh's servants and the people in the land of Egypt.

4Moses then said, "Thus says the LORD: At midnight I will go forth through Egypt.

5Every first-born in this land shall die, from the first-born of Pharaoh on the throne to the first-born of the slave-girl at the handmill, as well as all the first-born of the animals.

6Then there shall be loud wailing throughout the land of Egypt, such as has never been, nor will ever be again.

7But among the Israelites and their animals not even a dog shall growl, so that you may know how the LORD distinguishes between the Egyptians and the Israelites.

8All these servants of yours shall then come down to me, and prostrate before me, they shall beg me, 'Leave us, you and all your followers!' Only then will I depart." With that he left Pharaoh's presence in hot anger.

9The LORD said to Moses, "Pharaoh refuses to listen to you that my wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt."

10Thus, although Moses and Aaron performed these various wonders in Pharaoh's presence, the LORD made Pharaoh obstinate, and he would not let the Israelites leave his land.

12The LORD said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt,

2"This month shall stand at the head of your calendar; you shall reckon it the first month of the year.

3Tell the whole community of Israel: On the tenth of this month every one of your families must procure for itself a lamb, one apiece for each household.

4If a family is too small for a whole lamb, it shall join the nearest household in procuring one and shall share in the lamb in proportion to the number of persons who partake of it.

5The lamb must be a year-old male and without blemish. You may take it from either the sheep or the goats.

6You shall keep it until the fourteenth day of this month, and then, with the whole assembly of Israel present, it shall be slaughtered during the evening twilight.

7They shall take some of its blood and apply it to the two doorposts and the lintel of every house in which they partake of the lamb.

8That same night they shall eat its roasted flesh with unleavened bread and bitter herbs.

9It shall not be eaten raw or boiled, but roasted whole, with its head and shanks and inner organs.

10None of it must be kept beyond the next morning; whatever is left over in the morning shall be burned up.

11"This is how you are to eat it: with your loins girt, sandals on your feet and your staff in hand, you shall eat like those who are in flight. It is the Passover of the LORD.

12For on this same night I will go through Egypt, striking down every first--born of the land, both man and beast, and executing judgment on all the gods of Egypt-I, the LORD!

13But the blood will mark the houses where you are. Seeing the blood, I will pass over you; thus, when I strike the land of Egypt, no destructive blow will come upon you.

14"This day shall be a memorial feast for you, which all your generations shall celebrate with pilgrimage to the LORD, as a perpetual institution.

15For seven days you must eat unleavened bread. From the very first day you shall have your houses clear of all leaven. Whoever eats leavened bread from the first day to the seventh shall be cut off from Israel.

16On the first day you shall hold a sacred assembly, and likewise on the seventh. On these days you shall not do any sort of work, except to prepare the food that everyone needs.

17"Keep, then, this custom of the unleavened bread. Since it was on this very day that I brought your ranks out of the land of Egypt, you must celebrate this day throughout your generations as a perpetual institution.

18From the evening of the fourteenth day of the first month until the evening of the twenty-first day of this month you shall eat unleavened bread.

19For seven days no leaven may be found in your houses. Anyone, be he a resident alien or a native, who eats leavened food shall be cut off from the community of Israel.

20Nothing leavened may you eat; wherever you dwell you may eat only unleavened bread."

21Moses called all the elders of Israel and said to them, "Go and procure lambs for your families, and slaughter them as Passover victims.

22Then take a bunch of hyssop, and dipping it in the blood that is in the basin, sprinkle the lintel and the two doorposts with this blood. But none of you shall go outdoors until morning.

23For the LORD will go by, striking down the Egyptians. Seeing the blood on the lintel and the two doorposts, the LORD will pass over that door and not let the destroyer come into your houses to strike you down.

24"You shall observe this as a perpetual ordinance for yourselves and your descendants.

25Thus, you must also observe this rite when you have entered the land which the LORD will give you as he promised.

26When your children ask you, 'What does this rite of yours mean?'

27you shall reply, 'This is the Passover sacrifice of the LORD, who passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt; when he struck down the Egyptians, he spared our houses.'" Then the people bowed down in worship,

28and the Israelites went and did as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron.

29At midnight the LORD slew every first-born in the land of Egypt, from the first-born of Pharaoh on the throne to the first-born of the prisoner in the dungeon, as well as all the first-born of the animals.

30Pharaoh arose in the night, he and all his servants and all the Egyptians; and there was loud wailing throughout Egypt, for there was not a house without its dead.

31During the night Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and said, "Leave my people at once, you and the Israelites with you! Go and worship the LORD as you said.

32Take your flocks, too, and your herds, as you demanded, and be gone; and you will be doing me a favor."

33The Egyptians likewise urged the people on, to hasten their departure from the land; they thought that otherwise they would all die.

34The people, therefore, took their dough before it was leavened, in their kneading bowls wrapped in their cloaks on their shoulders.

35The Israelites did as Moses had commanded: they asked the Egyptians for articles of silver and gold and for clothing.

36The LORD indeed had made the Egyptians so well-disposed toward the people that they let them have whatever they asked for. Thus did they despoil the Egyptians.

37The Israelites set out from Rameses for Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, not counting the children.

38A crowd of mixed ancestry also went up with them, besides their livestock, very numerous flocks and herds.

39Since the dough they had brought out of Egypt was not leavened, they baked it into unleavened loaves. They had been rushed out of Egypt and had no opportunity even to prepare food for the journey.

40The time the Israelites had stayed in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years.

41At the end of four hundred and thirty years, all the hosts of the LORD left the land of Egypt on this very date.

42This was a night of vigil for the LORD, as he led them out of the land of Egypt; so on this same night all the Israelites must keep a vigil for the LORD throughout their generations.

43The LORD said to Moses and Aaron, "These are the regulations for the Passover. No foreigner may partake of it.

44However, any slave who has been bought for money may partake of it, provided you have first circumcised him.

45But no transient alien or hired servant may partake of it.

46It must be eaten in one and the same house; you may not take any of its flesh outside the house. You shall not break any of its bones.

47The whole community of Israel must keep this feast.

48If any aliens living among you wish to celebrate the Passover of the LORD, all the males among them must first be circumcised, and then they may join in its observance just like the natives. But no man who is uncircumcised may partake of it.

49The law shall be the same for the resident alien as for the native."

50All the Israelites did just as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron.

51On that same day the LORD brought the Israelites out of Egypt company by company.

13The LORD spoke to Moses and said,

2"Consecrate to me every first-born that opens the womb among the Israelites, both of man and beast, for it belongs to me."

3Moses said to the people, "Remember this day on which you came out of Egypt, that place of slavery. It was with a strong hand that the LORD brought you away. Nothing made with leaven must be eaten.

4This day of your departure is in the month of Abib.

5Therefore, it is in this month that you must celebrate this rite, after the LORD, your God, has brought you into the land of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Hivites and Jebusites, which he swore to your fathers he would give you, a land flowing with milk and honey.

6For seven days you shall eat unleavened bread, and the seventh day shall also be a festival to the LORD.

7Only unleavened bread may be eaten during the seven days; no leaven and nothing leavened may be found in all your territory.

8On this day you shall explain to your son, 'This is because of what the LORD did for me when I came out of Egypt.'

9It shall be as a sign on your hand and as a reminder on your forehead; thus the law of the LORD will ever be on your lips, because with a strong hand the LORD brought you out of Egypt.

10Therefore, you shall keep this prescribed rite at its appointed time from year to year.

11"When the LORD, your God, has brought you into the land of the Canaanites, which he swore to you and your fathers he would give you,

12you shall dedicate to the LORD every son that opens the womb; and all the male firstlings of your animals shall belong to the LORD.

13Every first-born of an ass you shall redeem with a sheep. If you do not redeem it, you shall break its neck. Every first-born son you must redeem.

14If your son should ask you later on, 'What does this mean?' you shall tell him, 'With a strong hand the LORD brought us out of Egypt, that place of slavery.

15When Pharaoh stubbornly refused to let us go, the LORD killed every first-born in the land of Egypt, every first-born of man and of beast. That is why I sacrifice to the LORD everything of the male sex that opens the womb, and why I redeem every first-born of my sons.'

16Let this, then, be as a sign on your hand and as a pendant on your forehead: with a strong hand the LORD brought us out of Egypt."

17Now, when Pharaoh let the people go, God did not lead them by way of the Philistines' land, though this was the nearest; for he thought, should the people see that they would have to fight, they might change their minds and return to Egypt.

18Instead, he rerouted them toward the Red Sea by way of the desert road. In battle array the Israelites marched out of Egypt.

19Moses also took Joseph's bones along, for Joseph had made the Israelites swear solemnly that, when God should come to them, they would carry his bones away with them.

20Setting out from Succoth, they camped at Etham near the edge of the desert.

21The LORD preceded them, in the daytime by means of a column of cloud to show them the way, and at night by means of a column of fire to give them light. Thus they could travel both day and night.

22Neither the column of cloud by day nor the column of fire by night ever left its place in front of the people.

14Then the LORD said to Moses,

2"Tell the Israelites to turn about and camp before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea. You shall camp in front of Baal-zephon, just opposite, by the sea.

3Pharaoh will then say, 'The Israelites are wandering about aimlessly in the land. The desert has closed in on them.'

4Thus will I make Pharaoh so obstinate that he will pursue them. Then I will receive glory through Pharaoh and all his army, and the Egyptians will know that I am the LORD." This the Israelites did.

5When it was reported to the king of Egypt that the people had fled, Pharaoh and his servants changed their minds about them. "What have we done!" they exclaimed. "Why, we have released Israel from our service!"

6So Pharaoh made his chariots ready and mustered his soldiers--

7six hundred first-class chariots and all the other chariots of Egypt, with warriors on them all.

8So obstinate had the LORD made Pharaoh that he pursued the Israelites even while they were marching away in triumph.

9The Egyptians, then, pursued them; Pharaoh's whole army, his horses, chariots and charioteers, caught up with them as they lay encamped by the sea, at Pi-hahiroth, in front of Baal-zephon.

10Pharaoh was already near when the Israelites looked up and saw that the Egyptians were on the march in pursuit of them. In great fright they cried out to the LORD.

11And they complained to Moses, "Were there no burial places in Egypt that you had to bring us out here to die in the desert? Why did you do this to us? Why did you bring us out of Egypt?

12Did we not tell you this in Egypt, when we said, 'Leave us alone. Let us serve the Egyptians'? Far better for us to be the slaves of the Egyptians than to die in the desert."

13But Moses answered the people, "Fear not! Stand your ground, and you will see the victory the LORD will win for you today. These Egyptians whom you see today you will never see again.

14The LORD himself will fight for you; you have only to keep still."

15Then the LORD said to Moses, "Why are you crying out to me? Tell the Israelites to go forward.

16And you, lift up your staff and, with hand outstretched over the sea, split the sea in two, that the Israelites may pass through it on dry land.

17But I will make the Egyptians so obstinate that they will go in after them. Then I will receive glory through Pharaoh and all his army, his chariots and charioteers.

18The Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD, when I receive glory through Pharaoh and his chariots and charioteers."

19The angel of God, who had been leading Israel's camp, now moved and went around behind them. The column of cloud also, leaving the front, took up its place behind them,

20so that it came between the camp of the Egyptians and that of Israel. But the cloud now became dark, and thus the night passed without the rival camps coming any closer together all night long.

21Then Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and the LORD swept the sea with a strong east wind throughout the night and so turned it into dry land. When the water was thus divided,

22the Israelites marched into the midst of the sea on dry land, with the water like a wall to their right and to their left.

23The Egyptians followed in pursuit; all Pharaoh's horses and chariots and charioteers went after them right into the midst of the sea.

24In the night watch just before dawn the LORD cast through the column of the fiery cloud upon the Egyptian force a glance that threw it into a panic;

25and he so clogged their chariot wheels that they could hardly drive. With that the Egyptians sounded the retreat before Israel, because the LORD was fighting for them against the Egyptians.

26Then the LORD told Moses, "Stretch out your hand over the sea, that the water may flow back upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots and their charioteers."

27So Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and at dawn the sea flowed back to its normal depth. The Egyptians were fleeing head on toward the sea, when the LORD hurled them into its midst.

28As the water flowed back, it covered the chariots and the charioteers of Pharaoh's whole army which had followed the Israelites into the sea. Not a single one of them escaped.

29But the Israelites had marched on dry land through the midst of the sea, with the water like a wall to their right and to their left.

30Thus the LORD saved Israel on that day from the power of the Egyptians. When Israel saw the Egyptians lying dead on the seashore

31and beheld the great power that the LORD had shown against the Egyptians, they feared the LORD and believed in him and in his servant Moses.

15Then Moses and the Israelites sang this song to the LORD: I will sing to the LORD, for he is gloriously triumphant; horse and chariot he has cast into the sea.

2My strength and my courage is the LORD, and he has been my savior. He is my God, I praise him; the God of my father, I extol him.

3The LORD is a warrior, LORD is his name!

4Pharaoh's chariots and army he hurled into the sea; the elite of his officers were submerged in the Red Sea.

5The flood waters covered them, they sank into the depths like a stone.

6Your right hand, O LORD, magnificent in power, your right hand, O LORD, has shattered the enemy.

7In your great majesty you overthrew your adversaries; you loosed your wrath to consume them like stubble.

8At a breath of your anger the waters piled up, the flowing waters stood like a mound, the flood waters congealed in the midst of the sea.

9The enemy boasted, "I will pursue and overtake them; I will divide the spoils and have my fill of them; I will draw my sword; my hand shall despoil them!"

10When your wind blew, the sea covered them; like lead they sank in the mighty waters.

11Who is like to you among the gods, O LORD? Who is like to you, magnificent in holiness? O terrible in renown, worker of wonders,

12when you stretched out your right hand, the earth swallowed them!

13In your mercy you led the people you redeemed; in your strength you guided them to your holy dwelling.

14The nations heard and quaked; anguish gripped the dwellers in Philistia.

15Then were the princes of Edom dismayed; trembling seized the chieftains of Moab; All the dwellers in Canaan melted away;

16terror and dread fell upon them. By the might of your arm they were frozen like stone, while your people, O LORD, passed over, while the people you had made your own passed over.

17And you brought them in and planted them on the mountain of your inheritance-- the place where you made your seat, O LORD, the sanctuary, O LORD, which your hands established.

18The LORD shall reign forever and ever.

19They sang thus because Pharaoh's horses and chariots and charioteers had gone into the sea, and the LORD made the waters of the sea flow back upon them, though the Israelites had marched on dry land through the midst of the sea.

20The prophetess Miriam, Aaron's sister, took a tambourine in her hand, while all the women went out after her with tambourines, dancing;

21and she led them in the refrain: Sing to the LORD, for he is gloriously triumphant; horse and chariot he has cast into the sea.

22Then Moses led Israel forward from the Red Sea, and they marched out to the desert of Shur. After traveling for three days through the desert without finding water,

23they arrived at Marah, where they could not drink the water, because it was too bitter. Hence this place was called Marah.

24As the people grumbled against Moses, saying, "What are we to drink?"

25he appealed to the LORD, who pointed out to him a certain piece of wood. When he threw this into the water, the water became fresh.It was here that the LORD, in making rules and regulations for them, put them to the test.

26"If you really listen to the voice of the LORD, your God," he told them, "and do what is right in his eyes: if you heed his commandments and keep all his precepts, I will not afflict you with any of the diseases with which I afflicted the Egyptians; for I, the LORD, am your healer."

27Then they came to Elim, where there were twelve springs of water and seventy palm trees, and they camped there near the water.

16Having set out from Elim, the whole Israelite community came into the desert of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departure from the land of Egypt.

2Here in the desert the whole Israelite community grumbled against Moses and Aaron.

3The Israelites said to them, "Would that we had died at the LORD'S hand in the land of Egypt, as we sat by our fleshpots and ate our fill of bread! But you had to lead us into this desert to make the whole community die of famine!"

4Then the LORD said to Moses, "I will now rain down bread from heaven for you. Each day the people are to go out and gather their daily portion; thus will I test them, to see whether they follow my instructions or not.

5On the sixth day, however, when they prepare what they bring in, let it be twice as much as they gather on the other days."

6So Moses and Aaron told all the Israelites, "At evening you will know that it was the LORD who brought you out of the land of Egypt;

7and in the morning you will see the glory of the LORD, as he heeds your grumbling against him. But what are we that you should grumble against us?

8When the LORD gives you flesh to eat in the evening," continued Moses, "and in the morning your fill of bread, as he heeds the grumbling you utter against him, what then are we? Your grumbling is not against us, but against the LORD."

9Then Moses said to Aaron, "Tell the whole Israelite community: Present yourselves before the LORD, for he has heard your grumbling."

10When Aaron announced this to the whole Israelite community, they turned toward the desert, and lo, the glory of the LORD appeared in the cloud!

11The LORD spoke to Moses and said,

12"I have heard the grumbling of the Israelites. Tell them: In the evening twilight you shall eat flesh, and in the morning you shall have your fill of bread, so that you may know that I, the LORD, am your God."

13In the evening quail came up and covered the camp. In the morning a dew lay all about the camp,

14and when the dew evaporated, there on the surface of the desert were fine flakes like hoarfrost on the ground.

15On seeing it, the Israelites asked one another, "What is this?" for they did not know what it was. But Moses told them, "This is the bread which the LORD has given you to eat.

16"Now, this is what the LORD has commanded. So gather it that everyone has enough to eat, an omer for each person, as many of you as there are, each man providing for those of his own tent."

17The Israelites did so. Some gathered a large and some a small amount.

18But when they measured it out by the omer, he who had gathered a large amount did not have too much, and he who had gathered a small amount did not have too little. They so gathered that everyone had enough to eat.

19Moses also told them, "Let no one keep any of it over until tomorrow morning."

20But they would not listen to him. When some kept a part of it over until the following morning, it became wormy and rotten. Therefore Moses was displeased with them.

21Morning after morning they gathered it, till each had enough to eat; but when the sun grew hot, the manna melted away.

22On the sixth day they gathered twice as much food, two omers for each person. When all the leaders of the community came and reported this to Moses,

23he told them, "That is what the LORD prescribed. Tomorrow is a day of complete rest, the sabbath, sacred to the LORD. You may either bake or boil the manna, as you please; but whatever is left put away and keep for the morrow."

24When they put it away for the morrow, as Moses commanded, it did not become rotten or wormy.

25Moses then said, "Eat it today, for today is the sabbath of the LORD. On this day you will not find any of it on the ground.

26On the other six days you can gather it, but on the seventh day, the sabbath, none of it will be there."

27Still, on the seventh day some of the people went out to gather it, although they did not find any.

28Then the LORD said to Moses, "How long will you refuse to keep my commandments and laws?

29Take note! The LORD has given you the sabbath. That is why on the sixth day he gives you food for two days. On the seventh day everyone is to stay home and no one is to go out."

30After that the people rested on the seventh day.

31The Israelites called this food manna. It was like coriander seed, but white, and it tasted like wafers made with honey.

32Moses said, "This is what the LORD has commanded. Keep an omerful of manna for your descendants, that they may see what food I gave you to eat in the desert when I brought you out of the land of Egypt."

33Moses then told Aaron, "Take an urn and put an omer of manna in it. Then place it before the LORD in safekeeping for your descendants."

34So Aaron placed it in front of the commandments for safekeeping, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

35The Israelites ate this manna for forty years, until they came to settled land; they ate manna until they reached the borders of Canaan.

36(An omer is one tenth of an ephah.)

17From the desert of Sin the whole Israelite community journeyed by stages, as the LORD directed, and encamped at Rephidim. Here there was no water for the people to drink.

2They quarreled, therefore, with Moses and said, "Give us water to drink." Moses replied, "Why do you quarrel with me? Why do you put the LORD to a test?"

3Here, then, in their thirst for water, the people grumbled against Moses, saying, "Why did you ever make us leave Egypt? Was it just to have us die here of thirst with our children and our livestock?"

4So Moses cried out to the LORD, "What shall I do with this people? A little more and they will stone me!"

5The LORD answered Moses, "Go over there in front of the people, along with some of the elders of Israel, holding in your hand, as you go, the staff with which you struck the river.

6I will be standing there in front of you on the rock in Horeb. Strike the rock, and the water will flow from it for the people to drink." This Moses did, in the presence of the elders of Israel.

7The place was called Massah and Meribah, because the Israelites quarreled there and tested the LORD, saying, "Is the LORD in our midst or not?"

8At Rephidim, Amalek came and waged war against Israel.

9Moses, therefore, said to Joshua, "Pick out certain men, and tomorrow go out and engage Amalek in battle. I will be standing on top of the hill with the staff of God in my hand."

10So Joshua did as Moses told him: he engaged Amalek in battle after Moses had climbed to the top of the hill with Aaron and Hur.

11As long as Moses kept his hands raised up, Israel had the better of the fight, but when he let his hands rest, Amalek had the better of the fight.

12Moses' hands, however, grew tired; so they put a rock in place for him to sit on. Meanwhile Aaron and Hur supported his hands, one on one side and one on the other, so that his hands remained steady till sunset.

13And Joshua mowed down Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword.

14Then the LORD said to Moses, "Write this down in a document as something to be remembered, and recite it in the ears of Joshua: I will completely blot out the memory of Amalek from under the heavens."

15Moses also built an altar there, which he called Yahweh-nissi;

16for he said, "The LORD takes in hand his banner; the LORD will war against Amalek through the centuries."

18Now Moses' father-in-law Jethro, the priest of Midian, heard of all that God had done for Moses and for his people Israel: how the LORD had brought Israel out of Egypt.

2So his father-in-law Jethro took along Zipporah, Moses' wife, whom Moses had sent back to him,

3and her two sons. One of these was called Gershom; for he said, "I am a stranger in a foreign land."

4The other was called Eliezer; for he said, "My father's God is my helper; he has rescued me from Pharaoh's sword."

5Together with Moses' wife and sons, then, his father-in-law Jethro came to him in the desert where he was encamped near the mountain of God,

6and he sent word to Moses, "I, Jethro, your father-in-law, am coming to you, along with your wife and her two sons."

7Moses went out to meet his father-in-law, bowed down before him, and kissed him. Having greeted each other, they went into the tent.

8Moses then told his father-in-law of all that the LORD had done to Pharaoh and the Egyptians for the sake of Israel, and of all the hardships they had had to endure on their journey, and how the LORD had come to their rescue.

9Jethro rejoiced over all the goodness that the LORD had shown Israel in rescuing them from the hands of the Egyptians.

10"Blessed be the LORD," he said, "who has rescued his people from the hands of Pharaoh and the Egyptians.

11Now I know that the LORD is a deity great beyond any other; for he took occasion of their being dealt with insolently to deliver the people from the power of the Egyptians."

12Then Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, brought a holocaust and other sacrifices to God, and Aaron came with all the elders of Israel to participate with Moses' father-in-law in the meal before God.

13The next day Moses sat in judgment for the people, who waited about him from morning until evening.

14When his father-in-law saw all that he was doing for the people, he inquired, "What sort of thing is this that you are doing for the people? Why do you sit alone while all the people have to stand about you from morning till evening?"

15Moses answered his father-in-law, "The people come to me to consult God.

16Whenever they have a disagreement, they come to me to have me settle the matter between them and make known to them God's decisions and regulations."

17"You are not acting wisely," his father-in-law replied.

18"You will surely wear yourself out, and not only yourself but also these people with you. The task is too heavy for you; you cannot do it alone.

19Now, listen to me, and I will give you some advice, that God may be with you. Act as the people's representative before God, bringing to him whatever they have to say.

20Enlighten them in regard to the decisions and regulations, showing them how they are to live and what they are to do.

21But you should also look among all the people for able and God-fearing men, trustworthy men who hate dishonest gain, and set them as officers over groups of thousands, of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens.

22Let these men render decisions for the people in all ordinary cases. More important cases they should refer to you, but all the lesser cases they can settle themselves. Thus, your burden will be lightened, since they will bear it with you.

23If you do this, when God gives you orders you will be able to stand the strain, and all these people will go home satisfied."

24Moses followed the advice of his father-in-law and did all that he had suggested.

25He picked out able men from all Israel and put them in charge of the people as officers over groups of thousands, of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens.

26They rendered decisions for the people in all ordinary cases. The more difficult cases they referred to Moses, but all the lesser cases they settled themselves.

27Then Moses bade farewell to his father-in-law, who went off to his own country.

19In the third month after their departure from the land of Egypt, on its first day, the Israelites came to the desert of Sinai.

2After the journey from Rephidim to the desert of Sinai, they pitched camp. While Israel was encamped here in front of the mountain,

3Moses went up the mountain to God. Then the LORD called to him and said, "Thus shall you say to the house of Jacob;

4tell the Israelites: You have seen for yourselves how I treated the Egyptians and how I bore you up on eagle wings and brought you here to myself.

5Therefore, if you hearken to my voice and keep my covenant, you shall be my special possession, dearer to me than all other people, though all the earth is mine.

6You shall be to me a kingdom of priests, a holy nation. That is what you must tell the Israelites."

7So Moses went and summoned the elders of the people. When he set before them all that the LORD had ordered him to tell them,

8the people all answered together, "Everything the LORD has said, we will do." Then Moses brought back to the LORD the response of the people.

9The LORD also told him, "I am coming to you in a dense cloud, so that when the people hear me speaking with you, they may always have faith in you also." When Moses, then, had reported to the LORD the response of the people,

10the LORD added, "Go to the people and have them sanctify themselves today and tomorrow. Make them wash their garments

11and be ready for the third day; for on the third day the LORD will come down on Mount Sinai before the eyes of all the people.

12Set limits for the people all around the mountain, and tell them: Take care not to go up the mountain, or even to touch its base. If anyone touches the mountain, he must be put to death.

13No hand shall touch him; he must be stoned to death or killed with arrows. Such a one, man or beast, must not be allowed to live. Only when the ram's horn resounds may they go up to the mountain."

14Then Moses came down from the mountain to the people and had them sanctify themselves and wash their garments.

15He warned them, "Be ready for the third day. Have no intercourse with any woman."

16On the morning of the third day there were peals of thunder and lightning, and a heavy cloud over the mountain, and a very loud trumpet blast, so that all the people in the camp trembled.

17But Moses led the people out of the camp to meet God, and they stationed themselves at the foot of the mountain.

18Mount Sinai was all wrapped in smoke, for the LORD came down upon it in fire. The smoke rose from it as though from a furnace, and the whole mountain trembled violently.

19The trumpet blast grew louder and louder, while Moses was speaking and God answering him with thunder.

20When the LORD came down to the top of Mount Sinai, he summoned Moses to the top of the mountain, and Moses went up to him.

21Then the LORD told Moses, "Go down and warn the people not to break through toward the LORD in order to see him; otherwise many of them will be struck down.

22The priests, too, who approach the LORD must sanctify themselves; else he will vent his anger upon them."

23Moses said to the LORD, "The people cannot go up to Mount Sinai, for you yourself warned us to set limits around the mountain to make it sacred."

24The LORD repeated, "Go down now! Then come up again along with Aaron. But the priests and the people must not break through to come up to the LORD; else he will vent his anger upon them."

25So Moses went down to the people and told them this.

20Then God delivered all these commandments:

2"I, the LORD, am your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, that place of slavery.

3You shall not have other gods besides me.

4You shall not carve idols for yourselves in the shape of anything in the sky above or on the earth below or in the waters beneath the earth;

5you shall not bow down before them or worship them. For I, the LORD, your God, am a jealous God, inflicting punishment for their fathers' wickedness on the children of those who hate me, down to the third and fourth generation;

6but bestowing mercy down to the thousandth generation, on the children of those who love me and keep my commandments.

7"You shall not take the name of the LORD, your God, in vain. For the LORD will not leave unpunished him who takes his name in vain.

8"Remember to keep holy the sabbath day.

9Six days you may labor and do all your work,

10but the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD, your God. No work may be done then either by you, or your son or daughter, or your male or female slave, or your beast, or by the alien who lives with you.

11In six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea and all that is in them; but on the seventh day he rested. That is why the LORD has blessed the sabbath day and made it holy.

12"Honor your father and your mother, that you may have a long life in the land which the LORD, your God, is giving you.

13"You shall not kill.

14"You shall not commit adultery.

15"You shall not steal.

16"You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.

17"You shall not covet your neighbor's house. You shall not covet your neighbor's wife, nor his male or female slave, nor his ox or ass, nor anything else that belongs to him."

18When the people witnessed the thunder and lightning, the trumpet blast and the mountain smoking, they all feared and trembled. So they took up a position much farther away

19and said to Moses, "You speak to us, and we will listen; but let not God speak to us, or we shall die."

20Moses answered the people, "Do not be afraid, for God has come to you only to test you and put his fear upon you, lest you should sin."

21Still the people remained at a distance, while Moses approached the cloud where God was.

22The LORD told Moses, "Thus shall you speak to the Israelites: You have seen for yourselves that I have spoken to you from heaven.

23Do not make anything to rank with me; neither gods of silver nor gods of gold shall you make for yourselves.

24"An altar of earth you shall make for me, and upon it you shall sacrifice your holocausts and peace offerings, your sheep and your oxen. In whatever place I choose for the remembrance of my name I will come to you and bless you.

25If you make an altar of stone for me, do not build it of cut stone, for by putting a tool to it you desecrate it.

26You shall not go up by steps to my altar, on which you must not be indecently uncovered.

21"These are the rules you shall lay before them.

2When you purchase a Hebrew slave, he is to serve you for six years, but in the seventh year he shall be given his freedom without cost.

3If he comes into service alone, he shall leave alone; if he comes with a wife, his wife shall leave with him.

4But if his master gives him a wife and she bears him sons or daughters, the woman and her children shall remain the master's property and the man shall leave alone.

5If, however, the slave declares, 'I am devoted to my master and my wife and children; I will not go free,'

6his master shall bring him to God and there, at the door or doorpost, he shall pierce his ear with an awl, thus keeping him as his slave forever.

7"When a man sells his daughter as a slave, she shall not go free as male slaves do.

8But if her master, who had destined her for himself, dislikes her, he shall let her be redeemed. He has no right to sell her to a foreigner, since he has broken faith with her.

9If he destines her for his son, he shall treat her like a daughter.

10If he takes another wife, he shall not withhold her food, her clothing, or her conjugal rights.

11If he does not grant her these three things, she shall be given her freedom absolutely, without cost to her.

12"Whoever strikes a man a mortal blow must be put to death.

13He, however, who did not hunt a man down, but caused his death by an act of God, may flee to a place which I will set apart for this purpose.

14But when a man kills another after maliciously scheming to do so, you must take him even from my altar and put him to death.

15Whoever strikes his father or mother shall be put to death.

16"A kidnaper, whether he sells his victim or still has him when caught, shall be put to death.

17"Whoever curses his father or mother shall be put to death.

18"When men quarrel and one strikes the other with a stone or with his fist, not mortally, but enough to put him in bed,

19the one who struck the blow shall be acquitted, provided the other can get up and walk around with the help of his staff. Still, he must compensate him for his enforced idleness and provide for his complete cure.

20"When a man strikes his male or female slave with a rod so hard that the slave dies under his hand, he shall be punished.

21If, however, the slave survives for a day or two, he is not to be punished, since the slave is his own property.

22"When men have a fight and hurt a pregnant woman, so that she suffers a miscarriage, but no further injury, the guilty one shall be fined as much as the woman's husband demands of him, and he shall pay in the presence of the judges.

23But if injury ensues, you shall give life for life,

24eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot,

25burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe.

26"When a man strikes his male or female slave in the eye and destroys the use of the eye, he shall let the slave go free in compensation for the eye.

27If he knocks out a tooth of his male or female slave, he shall let the slave go free in compensation for the tooth.

28"When an ox gores a man or a woman to death, the ox must be stoned; its flesh may not be eaten. The owner of the ox, however, shall go unpunished.

29But if an ox was previously in the habit of goring people and its owner, though warned, would not keep it in; should it then kill a man or a woman, not only must the ox be stoned, but its owner also must be put to death.

30If, however, a fine is imposed on him, he must pay in ransom for his life whatever amount is imposed on him.

31This law applies if it is a boy or a girl that the ox gores.

32But if it is a male or a female slave that it gores, he must pay the owner of the slave thirty shekels of silver, and the ox must be stoned.

33"When a man uncovers or digs a cistern and does not cover it over again, should an ox or an ass fall into it,

34the owner of the cistern must make good by restoring the value of the animal to its owner; the dead animal, however, he may keep.

35"When one man's ox hurts another's ox so badly that it dies, they shall sell the live ox and divide this money as well as the dead animal equally between them.

36But if it was known that the ox was previously in the habit of goring and its owner would not keep it in, he must make full restitution, an ox for an ox; but the dead animal he may keep. (v 37) "When a man steals an ox or a sheep and slaughters or sells it, he shall restore five oxen for the one ox, and four sheep for the one sheep.

22"(If a thief is caught in the act of housebreaking and beaten to death, there is no bloodguilt involved.

2But if after sunrise he is thus beaten, there is bloodguilt.) He must make full restitution. If he has nothing, he shall be sold to pay for his theft.

3If what he stole is found alive in his possession, be it an ox, an ass or a sheep, he shall restore two animals for each one stolen.

4"When a man is burning over a field or a vineyard, if he lets the fire spread so that it burns in another's field, he must make restitution with the best produce of his own field or vineyard.

5If the fire spreads further, and catches on to thorn bushes, so that shocked grain or standing grain or the field itself is burned up, the one who started the fire must make full restitution.

6"When a man gives money or an article to another for safekeeping and it is stolen from the latter's house, the thief, if caught, must make twofold restitution.

7If the thief is not caught, the owner of the house shall be brought to God, to swear that he himself did not lay hands on his neighbor's property.

8In every question of dishonest appropriation, whether it be about an ox, or an ass, or a sheep, or a garment, or anything else that has disappeared, where another claims that the thing is his, both parties shall present their case before God; the one whom God convicts must make twofold restitution to the other.

9"When a man gives an ass, or an ox, or a sheep, or any other animal to another for safekeeping, if it dies, or is maimed or snatched away, without anyone witnessing the fact,

10the custodian shall swear by the LORD that he did not lay hands on his neighbor's property; the owner must accept the oath, and no restitution is to be made.

11But if the custodian is really guilty of theft, he must make restitution to the owner.

12If it has been killed by a wild beast, let him bring it as evidence, and he need not make restitution for the mangled animal.

13"When a man borrows an animal from his neighbor, if it is maimed or dies while the owner is not present, the man must make restitution.

14But if the owner is present, he need not make restitution. If it was hired, this was covered by the price of its hire.

15"When a man seduces a virgin who is not betrothed, and lies with her, he shall pay her marriage price and marry her.

16If her father refuses to give her to him, he must still pay him the customary marriage price for virgins.

17"You shall not let a sorceress live.

18"Anyone who lies with an animal shall be put to death.

19"Whoever sacrifices to any god, except to the LORD alone, shall be doomed.

20"You shall not molest or oppress an alien, for you were once aliens yourselves in the land of Egypt.

21You shall not wrong any widow or orphan.

22If ever you wrong them and they cry out to me, I will surely hear their cry.

23My wrath will flare up, and I will kill you with the sword; then your own wives will be widows, and your children orphans.

24"If you lend money to one of your poor neighbors among my people, you shall not act like an extortioner toward him by demanding interest from him.

25If you take your neighbor's cloak as a pledge, you shall return it to him before sunset;

26for this cloak of his is the only covering he has for his body. What else has he to sleep in? If he cries out to me, I will hear him; for I am compassionate.

27"You shall not revile God, nor curse a prince of your people.

28"You shall not delay the offering of your harvest and your press. You shall give me the first-born of your sons.

29You must do the same with your oxen and your sheep; for seven days the firstling may stay with its mother, but on the eighth day you must give it to me.

30"You shall be men sacred to me. Flesh torn to pieces in the field you shall not eat; throw it to the dogs.

23"You shall not repeat a false report. Do not join the wicked in putting your hand, as an unjust witness, upon anyone.

2Neither shall you allege the example of the many as an excuse for doing wrong, nor shall you, when testifying in a lawsuit, side with the many in perverting justice.

3You shall not favor a poor man in his lawsuit.

4"When you come upon your enemy's ox or ass going astray, see to it that it is returned to him.

5When you notice the ass of one who hates you lying prostrate under its burden, by no means desert him; help him, rather, to raise it up.

6"You shall not deny one of your needy fellow men his rights in his lawsuit.

7You shall keep away from anything dishonest. The innocent and the just you shall not put to death, nor shall you acquit the guilty.

8Never take a bribe, for a bribe blinds even the most clear-sighted and twists the words even of the just.

9You shall not oppress an alien; you well know how it feels to be an alien, since you were once aliens yourselves in the land of Egypt.

10"For six years you may sow your land and gather in its produce.

11But the seventh year you shall let the land lie untilled and unharvested, that the poor among you may eat of it and the beasts of the field may eat what the poor leave. So also shall you do in regard to your vineyard and your olive grove.

12"For six days you may do your work, but on the seventh day you must rest, that your ox and your ass may also have rest, and that the son of your maidservant and the alien may be refreshed.

13Give heed to all that I have told you. "Never mention the name of any other god; it shall not be heard from your lips.

14"Three times a year you shall celebrate a pilgrim feast to me.

15You shall keep the feast of Unleavened Bread. As I have commanded you, you must eat unleavened bread for seven days at the prescribed time in the month of Abib, for it was then that you came out of Egypt. No one shall appear before me empty-handed.

16You shall also keep the feast of the grain harvest with the first of the crop that you have sown in the field; and finally, the feast at the fruit harvest at the end of the year, when you gather in the produce from the fields.

17Thrice a year shall all your men appear before the Lord GOD.

18"You shall not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leavened bread; nor shall the fat of my feast be kept overnight till the next day.

19The choicest first fruits of your soil you shall bring to the house of the LORD, your God. "You shall not boil a kid in its mother's milk.

20"See, I am sending an angel before you, to guard you on the way and bring you to the place I have prepared.

21Be attentive to him and heed his voice. Do not rebel against him, for he will not forgive your sin. My authority resides in him.

22If you heed his voice and carry out all I tell you, I will be an enemy to your enemies and a foe to your foes.

23"My angel will go before you and bring you to the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Canaanites, Hivites and Jebusites; and I will wipe them out.

24Therefore, you shall not bow down in worship before their gods, nor shall you make anything like them; rather, you must demolish them and smash their sacred pillars.

25The LORD, your God, you shall worship; then I will bless your food and drink, and I will remove all sickness from your midst;

26no woman in your land will be barren or miscarry; and I will give you a full span of life.

27"I will have the fear of me precede you, so that I will throw into panic every nation you reach. I will make all your enemies turn from you in flight,

28and ahead of you I will send hornets to drive the Hivites, Canaanites and Hittites out of your way.

29But not in one year will I drive them all out before you; else the land will become so desolate that the wild beasts will multiply against you.

30Instead, I will drive them out little by little before you, until you have grown numerous enough to take possession of the land.

31I will set your boundaries from the Red Sea to the sea of the Philistines, and from the desert to the River; all who dwell in this land I will hand over to you to be driven out of your way.

32You shall not make a covenant with them or their gods.

33They must not abide in your land, lest they make you sin against me by ensnaring you into worshiping their gods."

24Moses himself was told, "Come up to the LORD, you and Aaron, with Nadab, Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel. You shall all worship at some distance,

2but Moses alone is to come close to the LORD; the others shall not come too near, and the people shall not come up at all with Moses."

3When Moses came to the people and related all the words and ordinances of the LORD, they all answered with one voice, "We will do everything that the LORD has told us."

4Moses then wrote down all the words of the LORD and, rising early the next day, he erected at the foot of the mountain an altar and twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel.

5Then, having sent certain young men of the Israelites to offer holocausts and sacrifice young bulls as peace offerings to the LORD,

6Moses took half of the blood and put it in large bowls; the other half he splashed on the altar.

7Taking the book of the covenant, he read it aloud to the people, who answered, "All that the LORD has said, we will heed and do."

8Then he took the blood and sprinkled it on the people, saying, "This is the blood of the covenant which the LORD has made with you in accordance with all these words of his."

9Moses then went up with Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and seventy elders of Israel,

10and they beheld the God of Israel. Under his feet there appeared to be sapphire tilework, as clear as the sky itself.

11Yet he did not smite these chosen Israelites. After gazing on God, they could still eat and drink.

12The LORD said to Moses, "Come up to me on the mountain and, while you are there, I will give you the stone tablets on which I have written the commandments intended for their instruction."

13So Moses set out with Joshua, his aide, and went up to the mountain of God.

14The elders, however, had been told by him, "Wait here for us until we return to you. Aaron and Hur are staying with you. If anyone has a complaint, let him refer the matter to them."

15After Moses had gone up, a cloud covered the mountain.

16The glory of the LORD settled upon Mount Sinai. The cloud covered it for six days, and on the seventh day he called to Moses from the midst of the cloud.

17To the Israelites the glory of the LORD was seen as a consuming fire on the mountaintop.

18But Moses passed into the midst of the cloud as he went up on the mountain; and there he stayed for forty days and forty nights.

25This is what the LORD then said to Moses:

2"Tell the Israelites to take up a collection for me. From every man you shall accept the contribution that his heart prompts him to give me.

3These are the contributions you shall accept from them: gold, silver and bronze;

4violet, purple and scarlet yarn; fine linen and goat hair;

5rams' skins dyed red, and tahash skins; acacia wood;

6oil for the light; spices for the anointing oil and for the fragrant incense;

7onyx stones and other gems for mounting on the ephod and the breastpiece.

8"They shall make a sanctuary for me, that I may dwell in their midst.

9This Dwelling and all its furnishings you shall make exactly according to the pattern that I will now show you.

10"You shall make an ark of acacia wood, two and a half cubits long, one and a half cubits wide, and one and a half cubits high.

11Plate it inside and outside with pure gold, and put a molding of gold around the top of it.

12Cast four gold rings and fasten them on the four supports of the ark, two rings on one side and two on the opposite side.

13Then make poles of acacia wood and plate them with gold.

14These poles you are to put through the rings on the sides of the ark, for carrying it;

15they must remain in the rings of the ark and never be withdrawn.

16In the ark you are to put the commandments which I will give you.

17"You shall then make a propitiatory of pure gold, two cubits and a half long, and one and a half cubits wide.

18Make two cherubim of beaten gold for the two ends of the propitiatory,

19fastening them so that one cherub springs direct from each end.

20The cherubim shall have their wings spread out above, covering the propitiatory with them; they shall be turned toward each other, but with their faces looking toward the propitiatory.

21This propitiatory you shall then place on top of the ark. In the ark itself you are to put the commandments which I will give you.

22There I will meet you and there, from above the propitiatory, between the two cherubim on the ark of the commandments, I will tell you all the commands that I wish you to give the Israelites.

23"You shall also make a table of acacia wood, two cubits long, a cubit wide, and a cubit and a half high.

24Plate it with pure gold and make a molding of gold around it.

25Surround it with a frame, a handbreadth high, with a molding of gold around the frame.

26You shall also make four rings of gold for it and fasten them at the four corners, one at each leg,

27on two opposite sides of the frame as holders for the poles to carry the table.

28These poles for carrying the table you shall make of acacia wood and plate with gold.

29Of pure gold you shall make its plates and cups, as well as its pitchers and bowls for pouring libations.

30On the table you shall always keep showbread set before me.

31"You shall make a lampstand of pure beaten gold-its shaft and branches-with its cups and knobs and petals springing directly from it.

32Six branches are to extend from the sides of the lampstand, three branches on one side, and three on the other.

33On one branch there are to be three cups, shaped like almond blossoms, each with its knob and petals; on the opposite branch there are to be three cups, shaped like almond blossoms, each with its knob and petals; and so for the six branches that extend from the lampstand.

34On the shaft there are to be four cups, shaped like almond blossoms, with their knobs and petals,

35including a knob below each of the three pairs of branches that extend from the lampstand.

36Their knobs and branches shall so spring from it that the whole will form but a single piece of pure beaten gold.

37You shall then make seven lamps for it and so set up the lamps that they shed their light on the space in front of the lampstand.

38These, as well as the trimming shears and trays, must be of pure gold.

39Use a talent of pure gold for the lampstand and all its appurtenances.

40See that you make them according to the pattern shown you on the mountain.

26"The Dwelling itself you shall make out of sheets woven of fine linen twined and of violet, purple and scarlet yarn, with cherubim embroidered on them.

2The length of each shall be twenty-eight cubits, and the width four cubits; all the sheets shall be of the same size.

3Five of the sheets are to be sewed together, edge to edge; and the same for the other five.

4Make loops of violet yarn along the edge of the end sheet in one set, and the same along the edge of the end sheet in the other set.

5There are to be fifty loops along the edge of the end sheet in the first set, and fifty loops along the edge of the corresponding sheet in the second set, and so placed that the loops are directly opposite each other.

6Then make fifty clasps of gold, with which to join the two sets of sheets, so that the Dwelling forms one whole.

7"Also make sheets woven of goat hair, to be used as a tent covering over the Dwelling.

8Eleven such sheets are to be made; the length of each shall be thirty cubits, and the width four cubits: all eleven sheets shall be of the same size.

9Sew five of the sheets, edge to edge, into one set, and the other six sheets into another set. Use the sixth sheet double at the front of the tent.

10Make fifty loops along the edge of the end sheet in one set, and fifty loops along the edge of the end sheet in the second set.

11Also make fifty bronze clasps and put them into the loops, to join the tent into one whole.

12There will be an extra half sheet of tent covering, which shall be allowed to hang down over the rear of the Dwelling.

13Likewise, the sheets of the tent will have an extra cubit's length to be left hanging down on either side of the Dwelling to protect it.

14Over the tent itself you shall make a covering of rams' skins dyed red, and above that, a covering of tahash skins.

15"You shall make boards of acacia wood as walls for the Dwelling.

16The length of each board is to be ten cubits, and its width one and a half cubits.

17Each board shall have two arms that shall serve to fasten the boards in line. In this way all the boards of the Dwelling are to be made.

18Set up the boards of the Dwelling as follows: twenty boards on the south side,

19with forty silver pedestals under the twenty boards, so that there are two pedestals under each board, at its two arms;

20twenty boards on the other side of the Dwelling, the north side,

21with their forty silver pedestals, two under each board;

22six boards for the rear of the Dwelling, to the west;

23and two boards for the corners at the rear of the Dwelling.

24These two shall be double at the bottom, and likewise double at the top, to the first ring. That is how both boards in the corners are to be made.

25Thus, there shall be in the rear eight boards, with their sixteen silver pedestals, two pedestals under each board.

26Also make bars of acacia wood: five for the boards on one side of the Dwelling,

27five for those on the other side, and five for those at the rear, toward the west.

28The center bar, at the middle of the boards, shall reach across from end to end.

29Plate the boards with gold, and make gold rings on them as holders for the bars, which are also to be plated with gold.

30You shall erect the Dwelling according to the pattern shown you on the mountain.

31"You shall have a veil woven of violet, purple and scarlet yarn, and of fine linen twined, with cherubim embroidered on it.

32It is to be hung on four gold-plated columns of acacia wood, which shall have hooks of gold and shall rest on four silver pedestals.

33Hang the veil from clasps. The ark of the commandments you shall bring inside, behind this veil which divides the holy place from the holy of holies.

34Set the propitiatory on the ark of the commandments in the holy of holies.

35"Outside the veil you shall place the table and the lampstand, the latter on the south side of the Dwelling, opposite the table, which is to be put on the north side.

36For the entrance of the tent make a variegated curtain of violet, purple and scarlet yarn and of fine linen twined.

37Make five columns of acacia wood for this curtain; have them plated with gold, with their hooks of gold; and cast five bronze pedestals for them.

27"You shall make an altar of acacia wood, on a square, five cubits long and five cubits wide; it shall be three cubits high.

2At the four corners there are to be horns, so made that they spring directly from the altar. You shall then plate it with bronze.

3Make pots for removing the ashes, as well as shovels, basins, forks and fire pans, all of which shall be of bronze.

4Make a grating of bronze network for it; this to have four bronze rings, one at each of its four corners.

5Put it down around the altar, on the ground. This network is to be half as high as the altar.

6You shall also make poles of acacia wood for the altar, and plate them with bronze.

7These poles are to be put through the rings, so that they are on either side of the altar when it is carried.

8Make the altar itself in the form of a hollow box, just as it was shown you on the mountain.

9"You shall also make a court for the Dwelling. On the south side the court shall have hangings a hundred cubits long, woven of fine linen twined,

10with twenty columns and twenty pedestals of bronze; the hooks and bands on the columns shall be of silver.

11On the north side there shall be similar hangings, a hundred cubits long, with twenty columns and twenty pedestals of bronze; the hooks and bands on the columns shall be of silver.

12On the west side, across the width of the court, there shall be hangings, fifty cubits long, with ten columns and ten pedestals.

13The width of the court on the east side shall be fifty cubits.

14On one side there shall be hangings to the extent of fifteen cubits, with three columns and three pedestals;

15on the other side there shall be hangings to the extent of fifteen cubits, with three columns and three pedestals.

16"At the entrance of the court there shall be a variegated curtain, twenty cubits long, woven of violet, purple and scarlet yarn and of fine linen twined. It shall have four columns and four pedestals.

17"All the columns around the court shall have bands and hooks of silver, and pedestals of bronze.

18The enclosure of the court is to be one hundred cubits long, fifty cubits wide, and five cubits high. Fine linen twined must be used, and the pedestals must be of bronze.

19All the fittings of the Dwelling, whatever be their use, as well as all its tent pegs and all the tent pegs of the court, must be of bronze.

20"You shall order the Israelites to bring you clear oil of crushed olives, to be used for the light, so that you may keep lamps burning regularly.

21From evening to morning Aaron and his sons shall maintain them before the LORD in the meeting tent, outside the veil which hangs in front of the commandments. This shall be a perpetual ordinance for the Israelites throughout their generations.

28"From among the Israelites have your brother Aaron, together with his sons Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, brought to you, that they may be my priests.

2For the glorious adornment of your brother Aaron you shall have sacred vestments made.

3Therefore, to the various expert workmen whom I have endowed with skill, you shall give instructions to make such vestments for Aaron as will set him apart for his sacred service as my priest.

4These are the vestments they shall make: a breastpiece, an ephod, a robe, a brocaded tunic, a miter and a sash. In making these sacred vestments which your brother Aaron and his sons are to wear in serving as my priests,

5they shall use gold, violet, purple and scarlet yarn and fine linen.

6"The ephod they shall make of gold thread and of violet, purple and scarlet yarn, embroidered on cloth of fine linen twined.

7It shall have a pair of shoulder straps joined to its two upper ends.

8The embroidered belt of the ephod shall extend out from it and, like it, be made of gold thread, of violet, purple and scarlet yarn, and of fine linen twined.

9"Get two onyx stones and engrave on them the names of the sons of Israel:

10six of their names on one stone, and the other six on the other stone, in the order of their birth.

11As a gem-cutter engraves a seal, so shall you have the two stones engraved with the names of the sons of Israel and then mounted in gold filigree work.

12Set these two stones on the shoulder straps of the ephod as memorial stones of the sons of Israel. Thus Aaron shall bear their names on his shoulders as a reminder before the LORD.

13Make filigree rosettes of gold,

14as well as two chains of pure gold, twisted like cords, and fasten the cordlike chains to the filigree rosettes.

15"The breastpiece of decision you shall also have made, embroidered like the ephod with gold thread and violet, purple and scarlet yarn on cloth of fine linen twined.

16It is to be square when folded double, a span high and a span wide.

17On it you shall mount four rows of precious stones: in the first row, a carnelian, a topaz and an emerald;

18in the second row, a garnet, a sapphire and a beryl;

19in the third row, a jacinth, an agate and an amethyst;

20in the fourth row, a chrysolite, an onyx and a jasper. These stones are to be mounted in gold filigree work,

21twelve of them to match the names of the sons of Israel, each stone engraved like a seal with the name of one of the twelve tribes.

22"When the chains of pure gold, twisted like cords, have been made for the breastpiece,

23you shall then make two rings of gold for it and fasten them to the two upper ends of the breastpiece.

24The gold cords are then to be fastened to the two rings at the upper ends of the breastpiece,

25the other two ends of the cords being fastened in front to the two filigree rosettes which are attached to the shoulder straps of the ephod.

26Make two other rings of gold and put them on the two lower ends of the breastpiece, on its edge that faces the ephod.

27Then make two more rings of gold and fasten them to the bottom of the shoulder straps next to where they join the ephod in front, just above its embroidered belt.

28Violet ribbons shall bind the rings of the breastpiece to the rings of the ephod, so that the breastpiece will stay right above the embroidered belt of the ephod and not swing loose from it.

29"Whenever Aaron enters the sanctuary, he will thus bear the names of the sons of Israel on the breastpiece of decision over his heart as a constant reminder before the LORD.

30In this breastpiece of decision you shall put the Urim and Thummim, that they may be over Aaron's heart whenever he enters the presence of the LORD. Thus he shall always bear the decisions for the Israelites over his heart in the LORD'S presence.

31"The robe of the ephod you shall make entirely of violet material.

32It shall have an opening for the head in the center, and around this opening there shall be a selvage, woven as at the opening of a shirt, to keep it from being torn.

33All around the hem at the bottom you shall make pomegranates, woven of violet, purple and scarlet yarn and fine linen twined, with gold bells between them;

34first a gold bell, then a pomegranate, and thus alternating all around the hem of the robe.

35Aaron shall wear it when ministering, that its tinkling may be heard as he enters and leaves the LORD'S presence in the sanctuary; else he will die.

36"You shall also make a plate of pure gold and engrave on it, as on a seal engraving, 'Sacred to the LORD.'

37This plate is to be tied over the miter with a violet ribbon in such a way that it rests on the front of the miter,

38over Aaron's forehead. Since Aaron bears whatever guilt the Israelites may incur in consecrating any of their sacred gifts, this plate must always be over his forehead, so that they may find favor with the LORD.

39"The tunic of fine linen shall be brocaded. The miter shall be made of fine linen. The sash shall be of variegated work.

40"Likewise, for the glorious adornment of Aaron's sons you shall have tunics and sashes and turbans made.

41With these you shall clothe your brother Aaron and his sons. Anoint and ordain them, consecrating them as my priests.

42You must also make linen drawers for them, to cover their naked flesh from their loins to their thighs.

43Aaron and his sons shall wear them whenever they go into the meeting tent or approach the altar to minister in the sanctuary, lest they incur guilt and die. This shall be a perpetual ordinance for him and for his descendants.

29"This is the rite you shall perform in consecrating them as my priests. Procure a young bull and two unblemished rams.

2With fine wheat flour make unleavened cakes mixed with oil, and unleavened wafers spread with oil,

3and put them in a basket. Take the basket of them along with the bullock and the two rams.

4Aaron and his sons you shall also bring to the entrance of the meeting tent, and there wash them with water.

5Take the vestments and clothe Aaron with the tunic, the robe of the ephod, the ephod itself, and the breastpiece, fastening the embroidered belt of the ephod around him.

6Put the miter on his head, the sacred diadem on the miter.

7Then take the anointing oil and anoint him with it, pouring it on his head.

8Bring forward his sons also and clothe them with the tunics,

9gird them with the sashes, and tie the turbans on them. Thus shall the priesthood be theirs by perpetual law, and thus shall you ordain Aaron and his sons.

10"Now bring forward the bullock in front of the meeting tent. There Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands on its head.

11Then slaughter the bullock before the LORD, at the entrance of the meeting tent.

12Take some of its blood and with your finger put it on the horns of the altar. All the rest of the blood you shall pour out at the base of the altar.

13All the fat that covers its inner organs, as well as the lobe of its liver and its two kidneys, together with the fat that is on them, you shall take and burn on the altar.

14But the flesh and hide and offal of the bullock you must burn up outside the camp, since this is a sin offering.

15"Then take one of the rams, and after Aaron and his sons have laid their hands on its head,

16slaughter it. The blood you shall take and splash on all the sides of the altar.

17Cut the ram into pieces; its inner organs and shanks you shall first wash, and then put them with the pieces and with the head.

18The entire ram shall then be burned on the altar, since it is a holocaust, a sweet-smelling oblation to the LORD.

19"After this take the other ram, and when Aaron and his sons have laid their hands on its head,

20slaughter it. Some of its blood you shall take and put on the tip of Aaron's right ear and on the tips of his sons' right ears and on the thumbs of their right hands and the great toes of their right feet. Splash the rest of the blood on all the sides of the altar.

21Then take some of the blood that is on the altar, together with some of the anointing oil, and sprinkle this on Aaron and his vestments, as well as on his sons and their vestments, that his sons and their vestments may be sacred.

22"Now, from this ram you shall take its fat: its fatty tail, the fat that covers its inner organs, the lobe of its liver, its two kidneys with the fat that is on them, and its right thigh, since this is the ordination ram;

23then, out of the basket of unleavened food that you have set before the LORD, you shall take one of the loaves of bread, one of the cakes made with oil, and one of the wafers.

24All these things you shall put into the hands of Aaron and his sons, so that they may wave them as a wave offering before the LORD.

25After you have received them back from their hands, you shall burn them on top of the holocaust on the altar as a sweet-smelling oblation to the LORD.

26Finally, take the breast of Aaron's ordination ram and wave it as a wave offering before the LORD; this is to be your own portion.

27"Thus shall you set aside the breast of whatever wave offering is waved, as well as the thigh of whatever raised offering is raised up, whether this be the ordination ram or anything else belonging to Aaron or to his sons.

28Such things are due to Aaron and his sons from the Israelites by a perpetual ordinance as a contribution. From their peace offerings, too, the Israelites shall make a contribution, their contribution to the LORD.

29"The sacred vestments of Aaron shall be passed down to his descendants, that in them they may be anointed and ordained.

30The descendant who succeeds him as priest and who is to enter the meeting tent to minister in the sanctuary shall be clothed with them for seven days.

31"You shall take the flesh of the ordination ram and boil it in a holy place.

32At the entrance of the meeting tent Aaron and his sons shall eat the flesh of the ram and the bread that is in the basket.

33They themselves are to eat of these things by which atonement was made at their ordination and consecration; but no layman may eat of them, since they are sacred.

34If some of the flesh of the ordination sacrifice or some of the bread remains over on the next day, this remnant must be burned up; it is not to be eaten, since it is sacred.

35Carry out all these orders in regard to Aaron and his sons just as I have given them to you. "Seven days you shall spend in ordaining them,

36sacrificing a bullock each day as a sin offering, to make atonement. Thus also shall you purge the altar in making atonement for it; you shall anoint it in order to consecrate it.

37Seven days you shall spend in making atonement for the altar and in consecrating it. Then the altar will be most sacred, and whatever touches it will become sacred.

38"Now, this is what you shall offer on the altar: two yearling lambs as the sacrifice established for each day;

39one lamb in the morning and the other lamb at the evening twilight.

40With the first lamb there shall be a tenth of an ephah of fine flour mixed with a fourth of a hin of oil of crushed olives and, as its libation, a fourth of a hin of wine.

41The other lamb you shall offer at the evening twilight, with the same cereal offering and libation as in the morning. You shall offer this as a sweet-smelling oblation to the LORD.

42Throughout your generations this established holocaust shall be offered before the LORD at the entrance of the meeting tent, where I will meet you and speak to you.

43"There, at the altar, I will meet the Israelites; hence, it will be made sacred by my glory.

44Thus I will consecrate the meeting tent and the altar, just as I also consecrate Aaron and his sons to be my priests.

45I will dwell in the midst of the Israelites and will be their God.

46They shall know that I, the LORD, am their God who brought them out of the land of Egypt, so that I, the LORD, their God, might dwell among them.

30"For burning incense you shall make an altar of acacia wood,

2with a square surface, a cubit long, a cubit wide, and two cubits high, with horns that spring directly from it.

3Its grate on top, its walls on all four sides, and its horns you shall plate with pure gold. Put a gold molding around it.

4Underneath the molding you shall put gold rings, two on one side and two on the opposite side, as holders for the poles used in carrying it.

5Make the poles, too, of acacia wood and plate them with gold.

6This altar you are to place in front of the veil that hangs before the ark of the commandments where I will meet you.

7"On it Aaron shall burn fragrant incense. Morning after morning, when he prepares the lamps,

8and again in the evening twilight, when he lights the lamps, he shall burn incense. Throughout your generations this shall be the established incense offering before the LORD.

9On this altar you shall not offer up any profane incense, or any holocaust or cereal offering; nor shall you pour out a libation upon it.

10Once a year Aaron shall perform the atonement rite on its horns. Throughout your generations this atonement is to be made once a year with the blood of the atoning sin offering. This altar is most sacred to the LORD."

11The LORD also said to Moses,

12"When you take a census of the Israelites who are to be registered, each one, as he is enrolled, shall give the LORD a forfeit for his life, so that no plague may come upon them for being registered.

13Everyone who enters the registered group must pay a half-shekel, according to the standard of the sanctuary shekel, twenty gerahs to the shekel. This payment of a half-shekel is a contribution to the LORD.

14Everyone of twenty years or more who enters the registered group must give this contribution to the LORD.

15The rich need not give more, nor shall the poor give less, than a half-shekel in this contribution to the LORD to pay the forfeit for their lives.

16When you receive this forfeit money from the Israelites, you shall donate it to the service of the meeting tent, that there it may be the Israelites' reminder before the LORD, of the forfeit paid for their lives."

17The LORD said to Moses,

18"For ablutions you shall make a bronze laver with a bronze base. Place it between the meeting tent and the altar, and put water in it.

19Aaron and his sons shall use it in washing their hands and feet.

20When they are about to enter the meeting tent, they must wash with water, lest they die. Likewise when they approach the altar in their ministry, to offer an oblation to the LORD,

21they must wash their hands and feet, lest they die. This shall be a perpetual ordinance for him and his descendants throughout their generations."

22The LORD said to Moses,

23"Take the finest spices: five hundred shekels of free-flowing myrrh; half that amount, that is, two hundred and fifty shekels, of fragrant cinnamon; two hundred and fifty shekels of fragrant cane;

24five hundred shekels of cassia-all according to the standard of the sanctuary shekel; together with a hin of olive oil;

25and blend them into sacred anointing oil, perfumed ointment expertly prepared.

26With this sacred anointing oil you shall anoint the meeting tent and the ark of the commandments,

27the table and all its appurtenances, the lampstand and its appurtenances, the altar of incense

28and the altar of holocausts with all its appurtenances, and the laver with its base.

29When you have consecrated them, they shall be most sacred; whatever touches them shall be sacred.

30Aaron and his sons you shall also anoint and consecrate as my priests.

31To the Israelites you shall say: As sacred anointing oil this shall belong to me throughout your generations.

32It may not be used in any ordinary anointing of the body, nor may you make any other oil of a like mixture. It is sacred, and shall be treated as sacred by you.

33Whoever prepares a perfume like this, or whoever puts any of this on a layman, shall be cut off from his kinsmen."

34The LORD told Moses, "Take these aromatic substances: storax and onycha and galbanum, these and pure frankincense in equal parts;

35and blend them into incense. This fragrant powder, expertly prepared, is to be salted and so kept pure and sacred.

36Grind some of it into fine dust and put this before the commandments in the meeting tent where I will meet you. This incense shall be treated as most sacred by you.

37You may not make incense of a like mixture for yourselves; you must treat it as sacred to the LORD.

38Whoever makes an incense like this for his own enjoyment of its fragrance, shall be cut off from his kinsmen."

31The LORD said to Moses,

2"See, I have chosen Bezalel, son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah,

3and I have filled him with a divine spirit of skill and understanding and knowledge in every craft:

4in the production of embroidery, in making things of gold, silver or bronze,

5in cutting and mounting precious stones, in carving wood, and in every craft.

6As his assistant I have appointed Oholiab, son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan. I have also endowed all the experts with the necessary skill to make all the things I have ordered you to make:

7the meeting tent, the ark of the commandments with the propitiatory on top of it, all the furnishings of the tent,

8the table with its appurtenances, the pure gold lampstand with all its appurtenances, the altar of incense,

9the altar of holocausts with all its appurtenances, the laver with its base,

10the service cloths, the sacred vestments for Aaron the priest, the vestments for his sons in their ministry,

11the anointing oil, and the fragrant incense for the sanctuary. All these things they shall make just as I have commanded you."

12The LORD said to Moses,

13"You must also tell the Israelites: Take care to keep my sabbaths, for that is to be the token between you and me throughout the generations, to show that it is I, the LORD, who make you holy.

14Therefore, you must keep the sabbath as something sacred. Whoever desecrates it shall be put to death. If anyone does work on that day, he must be rooted out of his people.

15Six days there are for doing work, but the seventh day is the sabbath of complete rest, sacred to the LORD. Anyone who does work on the sabbath day shall be put to death.

16So shall the Israelites observe the sabbath, keeping it throughout their generations as a perpetual covenant.

17Between me and the Israelites it is to be an everlasting token; for in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, but on the seventh day he rested at his ease."

18When the LORD had finished speaking to Moses on Mount Sinai, he gave him the two tablets of the commandments, the stone tablets inscribed by God's own finger.

32When the people became aware of Moses' delay in coming down from the mountain, they gathered around Aaron and said to him, "Come, make us a god who will be our leader; as for the man Moses who brought us out of the land of Egypt, we do not know what has happened to him."

2Aaron replied, "Have your wives and sons and daughters take off the golden earrings they are wearing, and bring them to me."

3So all the people took off their earrings and brought them to Aaron,

4who accepted their offering, and fashioning this gold with a graving tool, made a molten calf. Then they cried out, "This is your God, O Israel, who brought you out of the land of Egypt."

5On seeing this, Aaron built an altar before the calf and proclaimed, "Tomorrow is a feast of the LORD."

6Early the next day the people offered holocausts and brought peace offerings. Then they sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to revel.

7With that, the LORD said to Moses, "Go down at once to your people, whom you brought out of the land of Egypt, for they have become depraved.

8They have soon turned aside from the way I pointed out to them, making for themselves a molten calf and worshiping it, sacrificing to it and crying out, 'This is your God, O Israel, who brought you out of the land of Egypt!'

9I see how stiff-necked this people is," continued the LORD to Moses.

10"Let me alone, then, that my wrath may blaze up against them to consume them. Then I will make of you a great nation."

11But Moses implored the LORD, his God, saying, "Why, O LORD, should your wrath blaze up against your own people, whom you brought out of the land of Egypt with such great power and with so strong a hand?

12Why should the Egyptians say, 'With evil intent he brought them out, that he might kill them in the mountains and exterminate them from the face of the earth'? Let your blazing wrath die down; relent in punishing your people.

13Remember your servants Abraham, Isaac and Israel, and how you swore to them by your own self, saying, 'I will make your descendants as numerous as the stars in the sky; and all this land that I promised, I will give your descendants as their perpetual heritage.'"

14So the LORD relented in the punishment he had threatened to inflict on his people.

15Moses then turned and came down the mountain with the two tablets of the commandments in his hands, tablets that were written on both sides, front and back;

16tablets that were made by God, having inscriptions on them that were engraved by God himself.

17Now, when Joshua heard the noise of the people shouting, he said to Moses, "That sounds like a battle in the camp."

18But Moses answered, "It does not sound like cries of victory, nor does it sound like cries of defeat; the sounds that I hear are cries of revelry."

19As he drew near the camp, he saw the calf and the dancing. With that, Moses' wrath flared up, so that he threw the tablets down and broke them on the base of the mountain.

20Taking the calf they had made, he fused it in the fire and then ground it down to powder, which he scattered on the water and made the Israelites drink.

21Moses asked Aaron, "What did this people ever do to you that you should lead them into so grave a sin?" Aaron replied, "Let not my lord be angry.

22You know well enough how prone the people are to evil.

23They said to me, 'Make us a god to be our leader; as for the man Moses who brought us out of the land of Egypt, we do not know what has happened to him.'

24So I told them, 'Let anyone who has gold jewelry take it off.' They gave it to me, and I threw it into the fire, and this calf came out."

25When Moses realized that, to the scornful joy of their foes, Aaron had let the people run wild,

26he stood at the gate of the camp and cried, "Whoever is for the LORD, let him come to me!" All the Levites then rallied to him,

27and he told them, "Thus says the LORD, the God of Israel: Put your sword on your hip, every one of you! Now go up and down the camp, from gate to gate, and slay your own kinsmen, your friends and neighbors!"

28The Levites carried out the command of Moses, and that day there fell about three thousand of the people.

29Then Moses said, "Today you have been dedicated to the LORD, for you were against your own sons and kinsmen, to bring a blessing upon yourselves this day."

30On the next day Moses said to the people, "You have committed a grave sin. I will go up to the LORD, then; perhaps I may be able to make atonement for your sin."

31So Moses went back to the LORD and said, "Ah, this people has indeed committed a grave sin in making a god of gold for themselves!

32If you would only forgive their sin! If you will not, then strike me out of the book that you have written."

33The LORD answered, "Him only who has sinned against me will I strike out of my book.

34Now, go and lead the people whither I have told you. My angel will go before you. When it is time for me to punish, I will punish them for their sin."

35Thus the LORD smote the people for having had Aaron make the calf for them.

33The LORD told Moses, "You and the people whom you have brought up from the land of Egypt, are to go up from here to the land which I swore to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob I would give to their descendants.

2Driving out the Canaanites, Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites, I will send an angel before you

3to the land flowing with milk and honey. But I myself will not go up in your company, because you are a stiff-necked people; otherwise I might exterminate you on the way."

4When the people heard this bad news, they went into mourning, and no one wore his ornaments.

5The LORD said to Moses, "Tell the Israelites: You are a stiff-necked people. Were I to go up in your company even for a moment, I would exterminate you. Take off your ornaments, therefore; I will then see what I am to do with you."

6So, from Mount Horeb onward, the Israelites laid aside their ornaments.

7The tent, which was called the meeting tent, Moses used to pitch at some distance away, outside the camp. Anyone who wished to consult the LORD would go to this meeting tent outside the camp.

8Whenever Moses went out to the tent, the people would all rise and stand at the entrance of their own tents, watching Moses until he entered the tent.

9As Moses entered the tent, the column of cloud would come down and stand at its entrance while the LORD spoke with Moses.

10On seeing the column of cloud stand at the entrance of the tent, all the people would rise and worship at the entrance of their own tents.

11The LORD used to speak to Moses face to face, as one man speaks to another. Moses would then return to the camp, but his young assistant, Joshua, son of Nun, would not move out of the tent.

12Moses said to the LORD, "You, indeed, are telling me to lead this people on; but you have not let me know whom you will send with me. Yet you have said, 'You are my intimate friend,' and also, 'You have found favor with me.'

13Now, if I have found favor with you, do let me know your ways so that, in knowing you, I may continue to find favor with you. Then, too, this nation is, after all, your own people."

14"I myself," the LORD answered, "will go along, to give you rest."

15Moses replied, "If you are not going yourself, do not make us go up from here.

16For how can it be known that we, your people and I, have found favor with you, except by your going with us? Then we, your people and I, will be singled out from every other people on the earth."

17The LORD said to Moses, "This request, too, which you have just made, I will carry out, because you have found favor with me and you are my intimate friend."

18Then Moses said, "Do let me see your glory!"

19He answered, "I will make all my beauty pass before you, and in your presence I will pronounce my name, 'LORD'; I who show favors to whom I will, I who grant mercy to whom I will.

20But my face you cannot see, for no man sees me and still lives.

21Here," continued the LORD, "is a place near me where you shall station yourself on the rock.

22When my glory passes I will set you in the hollow of the rock and will cover you with my hand until I have passed by.

23Then I will remove my hand, so that you may see my back; but my face is not to be seen."

34The LORD said to Moses, "Cut two stone tablets like the former, that I may write on them the commandments which were on the former tablets that you broke.

2Get ready for tomorrow morning, when you are to go up Mount Sinai and there present yourself to me on the top of the mountain.

3No one shall come up with you, and no one is even to be seen on any part of the mountain; even the flocks and the herds are not to go grazing toward this mountain."

4Moses then cut two stone tablets like the former, and early the next morning he went up Mount Sinai as the LORD had commanded him, taking along the two stone tablets.

5Having come down in a cloud, the LORD stood with him there and proclaimed his name, "LORD."

6Thus the LORD passed before him and cried out, "The LORD, the LORD, a merciful and gracious God, slow to anger and rich in kindness and fidelity,

7continuing his kindness for a thousand generations, and forgiving wickedness and crime and sin; yet not declaring the guilty guiltless, but punishing children and grandchildren to the third and fourth generation for their fathers' wickedness!"

8Moses at once bowed down to the ground in worship.

9Then he said, "If I find favor with you, O Lord, do come along in our company. This is indeed a stiff-necked people; yet pardon our wickedness and sins, and receive us as your own."

10"Here, then," said the LORD, "is the covenant I will make. Before the eyes of all your people I will work such marvels as have never been wrought in any nation anywhere on earth, so that this people among whom you live may see how awe-inspiring are the deeds which I, the LORD, will do at your side.

11But you, on your part, must keep the commandments I am giving you today. "I will drive out before you the Amorites, Canaanites, Hittites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites.

12Take care, therefore, not to make a covenant with these inhabitants of the land that you are to enter; else they will become a snare among you.

13Tear down their altars; smash their sacred pillars, and cut down their sacred poles.

14You shall not worship any other god, for the LORD is 'the Jealous One'; a jealous God is he.

15Do not make a covenant with the inhabitants of that land; else, when they render their wanton worship to their gods and sacrifice to them, one of them may invite you and you may partake of his sacrifice.

16Neither shall you take their daughters as wives for your sons; otherwise, when their daughters render their wanton worship to their gods, they will make your sons do the same.

17"You shall not make for yourselves molten gods.

18"You shall keep the feast of Unleavened Bread. For seven days at the prescribed time in the month of Abib you are to eat unleavened bread, as I commanded you; for in the month of Abib you came out of Egypt.

19"To me belongs every first-born male that opens the womb among all your livestock, whether in the herd or in the flock.

20The firstling of an ass you shall redeem with one of the flock; if you do not redeem it, you must break its neck. The first-born among your sons you shall redeem. "No one shall appear before me empty-handed.

21"For six days you may work, but on the seventh day you shall rest; on that day you must rest even during the seasons of plowing and harvesting.

22"You shall keep the feast of Weeks with the first of the wheat harvest; likewise, the feast at the fruit harvest at the close of the year.

23Three times a year all your men shall appear before the Lord, the LORD God of Israel.

24Since I will drive out the nations before you to give you a large territory, there will be no one to covet your land when you go up three times a year to appear before the LORD, your God.

25"You shall not offer me the blood of sacrifice with leavened bread, nor shall the sacrifice of the Passover feast be kept overnight for the next day.

26"The choicest first fruits of your soil you shall bring to the house of the LORD, your God. "You shall not boil a kid in its mother's milk."

27Then the LORD said to Moses, "Write down these words, for in accordance with them I have made a covenant with you and with Israel."

28So Moses stayed there with the LORD for forty days and forty nights, without eating any food or drinking any water, and he wrote on the tablets the words of the covenant, the ten commandments.

29As Moses came down from Mount Sinai with the two tablets of the commandments in his hands, he did not know that the skin of his face had become radiant while he conversed with the LORD.

30When Aaron, then, and the other Israelites saw Moses and noticed how radiant the skin of his face had become, they were afraid to come near him.

31Only after Moses called to them did Aaron and all the rulers of the community come back to him. Moses then spoke to them.

32Later on, all the Israelites came up to him, and he enjoined on them all that the LORD had told him on Mount Sinai.

33When he finished speaking with them, he put a veil over his face.

34Whenever Moses entered the presence of the LORD to converse with him, he removed the veil until he came out again. On coming out, he would tell the Israelites all that had been commanded.

35Then the Israelites would see that the skin of Moses' face was radiant; so he would again put the veil over his face until he went in to converse with the LORD.

35Moses assembled the whole Israelite community and said to them, "This is what the LORD has commanded to be done.

2On six days work may be done, but the seventh day shall be sacred to you as the sabbath of complete rest to the LORD. Anyone who does work on that day shall be put to death.

3You shall not even light a fire in any of your dwellings on the sabbath day."

4Moses told the whole Israelite community, "This is what the LORD has commanded:

5Take up among you a collection for the LORD. Everyone, as his heart prompts him, shall bring, as a contribution to the LORD, gold, silver and bronze;

6violet, purple and scarlet yarn; fine linen and goat hair;

7rams' skins dyed red, and tahash skins; acacia wood;

8oil for the light; spices for the anointing oil and for the fragrant incense;

9onyx stones and other gems for mounting on the ephod and on the breastpiece.

10"Let every expert among you come and make all that the LORD has commanded: the Dwelling,

11with its tent, its covering, its clasps, its boards, its bars, its columns and its pedestals;

12the ark, with its poles, the propitiatory, and the curtain veil;

13the table, with its poles and all its appurtenances, and the showbread;

14the lampstand, with its appurtenances, the lamps, and the oil for the light;

15the altar of incense, with its poles; the anointing oil, and the fragrant incense; the entrance curtain for the entrance of the Dwelling;

16the altar of holocausts, with its bronze grating, its poles, and all its appurtenances; the laver, with its base;

17the hangings of the court, with their columns and pedestals; the curtain for the entrance of the court;

18the tent pegs for the Dwelling and for the court, with their ropes;

19the service cloths for use in the sanctuary; the sacred vestments for Aaron, the priest, and the vestments worn by his sons in their ministry."

20When the whole Israelite community left Moses' presence,

21everyone, as his heart suggested and his spirit prompted, brought a contribution to the LORD for the construction of the meeting tent, for all its services, and for the sacred vestments.

22Both the men and the women, all as their heart prompted them, brought brooches, earrings, rings, necklaces and various other gold articles. Everyone who could presented an offering of gold to the LORD.

23Everyone who happened to have violet, purple or scarlet yarn, fine linen or goat hair, rams' skins dyed red or tahash skins, brought them.

24Whoever could make a contribution of silver or bronze offered it to the LORD; and everyone who happened to have acacia wood for any part of the work, brought it.

25All the women who were expert spinners brought hand-spun violet, purple and scarlet yarn and fine linen thread.

26All the women who possessed the skill, spun goat hair.

27The princes brought onyx stones and other gems for mounting on the ephod and on the breastpiece;

28as well as spices, and oil for the light, anointing oil, and fragrant incense.

29Every Israelite man and woman brought to the LORD such voluntary offerings as they thought best, for the various kinds of work which the LORD had commanded Moses to have done.

30Moses said to the Israelites, "See, the LORD has chosen Bezalel, son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah,

31and has filled him with a divine spirit of skill and understanding and knowledge in every craft:

32in the production of embroidery, in making things of gold, silver or bronze,

33in cutting and mounting precious stones, in carving wood, and in every other craft.

34He has also given both him and Oholiab, son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, the ability to teach others.

35He has endowed them with skill to execute all types of work: engraving, embroidering, the making of variegated cloth of violet, purple and scarlet yarn and fine linen thread, weaving, and all other arts and crafts.

36"Bezalel, therefore, will set to work with Oholiab and with all the experts whom the LORD has endowed with skill and understanding in knowing how to execute all the work for the service of the sanctuary, just as the LORD has commanded."

2Moses then called Bezalel and Oholiab and all the other experts whom the LORD had endowed with skill, men whose hearts moved them to come and take part in the work.

3They received from Moses all the contributions which the Israelites had brought for establishing the service of the sanctuary. Still, morning after morning the people continued to bring their voluntary offerings to Moses.

4Thereupon the experts who were executing the various kinds of work for the sanctuary, all left the work they were doing,

5and told Moses, "The people are bringing much more than is needed to carry out the work which the LORD has commanded us to do."

6Moses, therefore, ordered a proclamation to be made throughout the camp: "Let neither man nor woman make any more contributions for the sanctuary." So the people stopped bringing their offerings;

7there was already enough at hand, in fact, more than enough, to complete the work to be done.

8The various experts who were executing the work, made the Dwelling with its ten sheets woven of fine linen twined, having cherubim embroidered on them with violet, purple and scarlet yarn.

9The length of each sheet was twenty-eight cubits, and the width four cubits; all the sheets were of the same size.

10Five of the sheets were sewed together, edge to edge; and the same for the other five.

11Loops of violet yarn were made along the edge of the end sheet in the first set, and the same along the edge of the end sheet in the second set.

12Fifty loops were thus put on one inner sheet, and fifty loops on the inner sheet in the other set, with the loops directly opposite each other.

13Then fifty clasps of gold were made, with which the sheets were joined so that the Dwelling formed one whole.

14Sheets of goat hair were also woven as a tent over the Dwelling. Eleven such sheets were made.

15The length of each sheet was thirty cubits and the width four cubits; all eleven sheets were the same size.

16Five of these sheets were sewed edge to edge into one set; and the other six sheets into another set.

17Fifty loops were made along the edge of the end sheet in one set, and fifty loops along the edge of the corresponding sheet in the other set.

18Fifty bronze clasps were made with which the tent was joined so that it formed one whole.

19A covering for the tent was made of rams' skins dyed red, and above that, a covering of tahash skins.

20Boards of acacia wood were made as walls for the Dwelling.

21The length of each board was ten cubits, and the width one and a half cubits.

22Each board had two arms, fastening them in line. In this way all the boards of the Dwelling were made.

23They were set up as follows: twenty boards on the south side,

24with forty silver pedestals under the twenty boards, so that there were two pedestals under each board, at its two arms;

25twenty boards on the other side of the Dwelling, the north side,

26with their forty silver pedestals, two under each board;

27six boards at the rear of the Dwelling, to the west;

28and two boards at the corners in the rear of the Dwelling.

29These were double at the bottom, and likewise double at the top, to the first ring. That is how both boards in the corners were made.

30Thus, there were in the rear eight boards, with their sixteen silver pedestals, two pedestals under each board.

31Bars of acacia wood were also made, five for the boards on one side of the Dwelling,

32five for those on the other side, and five for those at the rear, to the west.

33The center bar, at the middle of the boards, was made to reach across from end to end.

34The boards were plated with gold, and gold rings were made on them as holders for the bars, which were also plated with gold.

35The veil was woven of violet, purple and scarlet yarn, and of fine linen twined, with cherubim embroidered on it.

36Four gold-plated columns of acacia wood, with gold hooks, were made for it, and four silver pedestals were cast for them.

37The curtain for the entrance of the tent was made of violet, purple and scarlet yarn, and of fine linen twined, woven in a variegated manner.

38Its five columns, with their hooks as well as their capitals and bands, were plated with gold; their five pedestals were of bronze.

37Bezalel made the ark of acacia wood, two and a half cubits long, one and a half cubits wide, and one and a half cubits high.

2The inside and outside were plated with gold, and a molding of gold was put around it.

3Four gold rings were cast and put on its four supports, two rings for one side and two for the opposite side.

4Poles of acacia wood were made and plated with gold;

5these were put through the rings on the sides of the ark, for carrying it.

6The propitiatory was made of pure gold, two and a half cubits long and one and a half cubits wide.

7Two cherubim of beaten gold were made for the two ends of the propitiatory,

8one cherub fastened at one end, the other at the other end, springing directly from the propitiatory at its two ends.

9The cherubim had their wings spread out above, covering the propitiatory with them. They were turned toward each other, but with their faces looking toward the propitiatory.

10The table was made of acacia wood, two cubits long, one cubit wide, and one and a half cubits high.

11It was plated with pure gold, and a molding of gold was put around it.

12A frame a handbreadth high was also put around it, with a molding of gold around the frame.

13Four rings of gold were cast for it and fastened, one at each of the four corners.

14The rings were alongside the frame as holders for the poles to carry the table.

15These poles were made of acacia wood and plated with gold.

16The vessels that were set on the table, its plates and cups, as well as its pitchers and bowls for pouring libations, were of pure gold.

17The lampstand was made of pure beaten gold--its shaft and branches as well as its cups and knobs and petals springing directly from it.

18Six branches extended from its sides, three branches on one side and three on the other.

19On one branch there were three cups, shaped like almond blossoms, each with its knob and petals; on the opposite branch there were three cups, shaped like almond blossoms, each with its knob and petals; and so for the six branches that extended from the lampstand.

20On the shaft there were four cups, shaped like almond blossoms, with their knobs and petals,

21including a knob below each of the three pairs of branches that extended from the lampstand.

22The knobs and branches sprang so directly from it that the whole formed but a single piece of pure beaten gold.

23Its seven lamps, as well as its trimming shears and trays, were made of pure gold.

24A talent of pure gold was used for the lampstand and its various appurtenances.

25The altar of incense was made of acacia wood, on a square, a cubit long, a cubit wide, and two cubits high, having horns that sprang directly from it.

26Its grate on top, its walls on all four sides, and its horns were plated with pure gold; and a molding of gold was put around it.

27Underneath the molding gold rings were placed, two on one side and two on the opposite side, as holders for the poles to carry it.

28The poles, too, were made of acacia wood and plated with gold.

29The sacred anointing oil and the fragrant incense were prepared in their pure form by a perfumer.

38The altar of holocausts was made of acacia wood, on a square, five cubits long and five cubits wide; its height was three cubits.

2At the four corners horns were made that sprang directly from the altar. The whole was plated with bronze.

3All the utensils of the altar, the pots, shovels, basins, forks and fire pans, were likewise made of bronze.

4A grating of bronze network was made for the altar and placed round it, on the ground, half as high as the altar itself.

5Four rings were cast for the four corners of the bronze grating, as holders for the poles,

6which were made of acacia wood and plated with bronze.

7The poles were put through the rings on the sides of the altar for carrying it. The altar was made in the form of a hollow box.

8The bronze laver, with its bronze base, was made from the mirrors of the women who served at the entrance of the meeting tent.

9The court was made as follows. On the south side of the court there were hangings, woven of fine linen twined, a hundred cubits long,

10with twenty columns and twenty pedestals of bronze, the hooks and bands of the columns being of silver.

11On the north side there were similar hangings, one hundred cubits long, with twenty columns and twenty pedestals of bronze, the hooks and bands of the columns being of silver.

12On the west side there were hangings, fifty cubits long, with ten columns and ten pedestals, the hooks and bands of the columns being of silver.

13On the east side the court was fifty cubits long.

14Toward one side there were hangings to the extent of fifteen cubits, with three columns and three pedestals; toward the other side,

15beyond the entrance of the court, there were likewise hangings to the extent of fifteen cubits, with three columns and three pedestals.

16The hangings on all sides of the court were woven of fine linen twined.

17The pedestals of the columns were of bronze, while the hooks and bands of the columns were of silver; the capitals were silver-plated, and all the columns of the court were banded with silver.

18At the entrance of the court there was a variegated curtain, woven of violet, purple and scarlet yarn and of fine linen twined, twenty cubits long and five cubits wide, in keeping with the hangings of the court.

19There were four columns and four pedestals of bronze for it, while their hooks were of silver.

20All the tent pegs for the Dwelling and for the court around it were of bronze.

21The following is an account of the various amounts used on the Dwelling, the Dwelling of the commandments, drawn up at the command of Moses by the Levites under the direction of Ithamar, son of Aaron the priest.

22However, it was Bezalel, son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, who made all that the Lord commanded Moses,

23and he was assisted by Oholiab, son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, who was an engraver, an embroiderer, and a weaver of variegated cloth of violet, purple and scarlet yarn and of fine linen.

24All the gold used in the entire construction of the sanctuary, having previously been given as an offering, amounted to twenty-nine talents and seven hundred and thirty shekels, according to the standard of the sanctuary shekel.

25The amount of the silver received from the community was one hundred talents and one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five shekels, according to the standard of the sanctuary shekel;

26one bekah apiece, that is, a half-shekel apiece, according to the standard of the sanctuary shekel, was received from every man of twenty years or more who entered the registered group; the number of these was six hundred and three thousand five hundred and fifty men.

27One hundred talents of silver were used for casting the pedestals of the sanctuary and the pedestals of the veil, one talent for each pedestal, or one hundred talents for the one hundred pedestals.

28The remaining one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five shekels were used for making the hooks on the columns, for plating the capitals, and for banding them with silver.

29The bronze, given as an offering, amounted to seventy talents and two thousand four hundred shekels.

30With this were made the pedestals at the entrance of the meeting tent, the bronze altar with its bronze gratings and all the appurtenances of the altar,

31the pedestals around the court, the pedestals at the entrance of the court, and all the tent pegs for the Dwelling and for the court around it.

39With violet, purple and scarlet yarn were woven the service cloths for use in the sanctuary, as well as the sacred vestments for Aaron, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

2The ephod was woven of gold thread and of violet, purple and scarlet yarn and of fine linen twined.

3Gold was first hammered into gold leaf and then cut up into threads, which were woven with the violet, purple and scarlet yarn into an embroidered pattern on the fine linen.

4Shoulder straps were made for it and joined to its two upper ends.

5The embroidered belt on the ephod extended out from it, and like it, was made of gold thread, of violet, purple and scarlet yarn, and of fine linen twined, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

6The onyx stones were prepared and mounted in gold filigree work; they were engraved like seal engravings with the names of the sons of Israel.

7These stones were set on the shoulder straps of the ephod as memorial stones of the sons of Israel, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.

8The breastpiece was embroidered like the ephod, with gold thread and violet, purple and scarlet yarn on cloth of fine linen twined.

9It was square and folded double, a span high and a span wide in its folded form.

10Four rows of precious stones were mounted on it: in the first row a carnelian, a topaz and an emerald;

11in the second row, a garnet, a sapphire and a beryl;

12in the third row a jacinth, an agate and an amethyst;

13in the fourth row a chrysolite, an onyx and a jasper. They were mounted in gold filigree work.

14These stones were twelve, to match the names of the sons of Israel, and each stone was engraved like a seal with the name of one of the twelve tribes.

15Chains of pure gold, twisted like cords, were made for the breastpiece,

16together with two gold filigree rosettes and two gold rings. The two rings were fastened to the two upper ends of the breastpiece.

17The two gold chains were then fastened to the two rings at the ends of the breastpiece.

18The other two ends of the two chains were fastened in front to the two filigree rosettes, which were attached to the shoulder straps of the ephod.

19Two other gold rings were made and put on the two lower ends of the breastpiece, on the edge facing the ephod.

20Two more gold rings were made and fastened to the bottom of the two shoulder straps next to where they joined the ephod in front, just above its embroidered belt.

21Violet ribbons bound the rings of the breastpiece to the rings of the ephod, so that the breastpiece stayed right above the embroidered belt of the ephod and did not swing loose from it. All this was just as the LORD had commanded Moses.

22The robe of the ephod was woven entirely of violet yarn,

23with an opening in its center like the opening of a shirt, with selvage around the opening to keep it from being torn.

24At the hem of the robe pomegranates were made of violet, purple and scarlet yarn and of fine linen twined;

25bells of pure gold were also made and put between the pomegranates all around the hem of the robe:

26first a bell, then a pomegranate, and thus alternating all around the hem of the robe which was to be worn in performing the ministry--all this, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.

27For Aaron and his sons there were also woven tunics of fine linen;

28the miter of fine linen; the ornate turbans of fine linen; drawers of linen (of fine linen twined);

29and sashes of variegated work made of fine linen twined and of violet, purple and scarlet yarn, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

30The plate of the sacred diadem was made of pure gold and inscribed, as on a seal engraving: "Sacred to the LORD."

31It was tied over the miter with a violet ribbon, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

32Thus the entire work of the Dwelling of the meeting tent was completed. The Israelites did the work just as the LORD had commanded Moses.

33They then brought to Moses the Dwelling, the tent with all its appurtenances, the clasps, the boards, the bars, the columns, the pedestals,

34the covering of rams' skins dyed red, the covering of tahash skins, the curtain veil;

35the ark of the commandments with its poles, the propitiatory,

36the table with all its appurtenances and the showbread,

37the pure gold lampstand with its lamps set up on it and with all its appurtenances, the oil for the light,

38the golden altar, the anointing oil, the fragrant incense; the curtain for the entrance of the tent,

39the altar of bronze with its bronze grating, its poles and all its appurtenances, the laver with its base,

40the hangings of the court with their columns and pedestals, the curtain for the entrance of the court with its ropes and tent pegs, all the equipment for the service of the Dwelling of the meeting tent;

41the service cloths for use in the sanctuary, the sacred vestments for Aaron the priest, and the vestments to be worn by his sons in their ministry.

42The Israelites had carried out all the work just as the LORD had commanded Moses.

43So when Moses saw that all the work was done just as the LORD had commanded, he blessed them.

40Then the LORD said to Moses,

2"On the first day of the first month you shall erect the Dwelling of the meeting tent.

3Put the ark of the commandments in it, and screen off the ark with the veil.

4Bring in the table and set it. Then bring in the lampstand and set up the lamps on it.

5Put the golden altar of incense in front of the ark of the commandments, and hang the curtain at the entrance of the Dwelling.

6Put the altar of holocausts in front of the entrance of the Dwelling of the meeting tent.

7Place the laver between the meeting tent and the altar, and put water in it.

8Set up the court round about, and put the curtain at the entrance of the court.

9"Take the anointing oil and anoint the Dwelling and everything in it, consecrating it and all its furnishings, so that it will be sacred.

10Anoint the altar of holocausts and all its appurtenances, consecrating it, so that it will be most sacred.

11Likewise, anoint the laver with its base, and thus consecrate it.

12"Then bring Aaron and his sons to the entrance of the meeting tent, and there wash them with water.

13Clothe Aaron with the sacred vestments and anoint him, thus consecrating him as my priest.

14Bring forward his sons also, and clothe them with the tunics.

15As you have anointed their father, anoint them also as my priests. Thus, by being anointed, shall they receive a perpetual priesthood throughout all future generations."

16Moses did exactly as the LORD had commanded him.

17On the first day of the first month of the second year the Dwelling was erected.

18It was Moses who erected the Dwelling. He placed its pedestals, set up its boards, put in its bars, and set up its columns.

19He spread the tent over the Dwelling and put the covering on top of the tent, as the LORD had commanded him.

20He took the commandments and put them in the ark; he placed poles alongside the ark and set the propitiatory upon it.

21He brought the ark into the Dwelling and hung the curtain veil, thus screening off the ark of the commandments, as the LORD had commanded him.

22He put the table in the meeting tent, on the north side of the Dwelling, outside the veil,

23and arranged the bread on it before the LORD, as the LORD had commanded him.

24He placed the lampstand in the meeting tent, opposite the table, on the south side of the Dwelling,

25and he set up the lamps before the LORD, as the LORD had commanded him.

26He placed the golden altar in the meeting tent, in front of the veil,

27and on it he burned fragrant incense, as the LORD had commanded him.

28He hung the curtain at the entrance of the Dwelling.

29He put the altar of holocausts in front of the entrance of the Dwelling of the meeting tent, and offered holocausts and cereal offerings on it, as the LORD had commanded him.

30He placed the laver between the meeting tent and the altar, and put water in it for washing.

31Moses and Aaron and his sons used to wash their hands and feet there,

32for they washed themselves whenever they went into the meeting tent or approached the altar, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

33Finally, he set up the court around the Dwelling and the altar and hung the curtain at the entrance of the court. Thus Moses finished all the work.

34Then the cloud covered the meeting tent, and the glory of the LORD filled the Dwelling.

35Moses could not enter the meeting tent, because the cloud settled down upon it and the glory of the LORD filled the Dwelling.

36Whenever the cloud rose from the Dwelling, the Israelites would set out on their journey.

37But if the cloud did not lift, they would not go forward; only when it lifted did they go forward.

38In the daytime the cloud of the LORD was seen over the Dwelling; whereas at night, fire was seen in the cloud by the whole house of Israel in all the stages of their journey.


 


Leviticus


1The LORD called Moses, and from the meeting tent gave him this message:

2"Speak to the Israelites and tell them: When any one of you wishes to bring an animal offering to the LORD, such an offering must be from the herd or from the flock.

3"If his holocaust offering is from the herd, it must be a male without blemish. To find favor with the LORD, he shall bring it to the entrance of the meeting tent

4and there lay his hand on the head of the holocaust, so that it may be acceptable to make atonement for him.

5He shall then slaughter the bull before the LORD, but Aaron's sons, the priests, shall offer up its blood by splashing it on the sides of the altar which is at the entrance of the meeting tent.

6Then he shall skin the holocaust and cut it up into pieces.

7After Aaron's sons, the priests, have put some burning embers on the altar and laid some wood on them,

8they shall lay the pieces of meat, together with the head and the suet, on top of the wood and embers on the altar.

9The inner organs and the shanks, however, the offerer shall first wash with water. The priest shall then burn the whole offering on the altar as a holocaust, a sweet-smelling oblation to the LORD.

10"If his holocaust offering is from the flock, that is, a sheep or a goat, he must bring a male without blemish.

11This he shall slaughter before the LORD at the north side of the altar. Then Aaron's sons, the priests, shall splash its blood on the sides of the altar.

12When the offerer has cut it up into pieces, the priest shall lay these, together with the head and suet, on top of the wood and the fire on the altar.

13The inner organs and the shanks, however, the offerer shall first wash with water. The priest shall offer them up and then burn the whole offering on the altar as a holocaust, a sweet-smelling oblation to the LORD.

14"If he offers a bird as a holocaust to the LORD, he shall choose a turtledove or a pigeon as his offering.

15Having brought it to the altar where it is to be burned, the priest shall snap its head loose and squeeze out its blood against the side of the altar.

16Its crop and feathers shall be removed and thrown on the ash heap at the east side of the altar.

17Then, having split the bird down the middle without separating the halves, the priest shall burn it on the altar, over the wood on the fire, as a holocaust, a sweet-smelling oblation to the LORD.

2"When anyone wishes to bring a cereal offering to the LORD, his offering must consist of fine flour. He shall pour oil on it and put frankincense over it.

2When he has brought it to Aaron's sons, the priests, one of them shall take a handful of this fine flour and oil, together with all the frankincense, and this he shall burn on the altar as a token offering, a sweet-smelling oblation to the LORD.

3The rest of the cereal offering belongs to Aaron and his sons. It is a most sacred oblation to the LORD.

4"When the cereal offering you present is baked in an oven, it must be in the form of unleavened cakes made of fine flour mixed with oil, or of unleavened wafers spread with oil.

5If you present a cereal offering that is fried on a griddle, it must be of fine flour mixed with oil and unleavened.

6Such a cereal offering must be broken into pieces, and oil must be poured over it.

7If you present a cereal offering that is prepared in a pot, it must be of fine flour, deep-fried in oil.

8A cereal offering that is made in any of these ways you shall bring to the LORD, offering it to the priest, who shall take it to the altar.

9Its token offering the priest shall then lift from the cereal offering and burn on the altar as a sweet-smelling oblation to the LORD.

10The rest of the cereal offering belongs to Aaron and his sons. It is a most sacred oblation to the LORD.

11"Every cereal offering that you present to the LORD shall be unleavened, for you shall not burn any leaven or honey as an oblation to the LORD.

12Such you may indeed present to the LORD in the offering of first fruits, but they are not to be placed on the altar for a pleasing odor.

13However, every cereal offering that you present to the LORD shall be seasoned with salt. Do not let the salt of the covenant of your God be lacking from your cereal offering. On every offering you shall offer salt.

14"If you present a cereal offering of first fruits to the LORD, you shall offer it in the form of fresh grits of new ears of grain, roasted by fire.

15On this cereal offering you shall put oil and frankincense.

16For its token offering the priest shall then burn some of the grits and oil, together with all the frankincense, as an oblation to the LORD.

3"If someone in presenting a peace offering makes his offering from the herd, he may offer before the LORD either a male or a female animal, but it must be without blemish.

2He shall lay his hand on the head of his offering, and then slaughter it at the entrance of the meeting tent; but Aaron's sons, the priests, shall splash its blood on the sides of the altar.

3From the peace offering he shall offer as an oblation to the LORD the fatty membrane over the inner organs, and all the fat that adheres to them,

4as well as the two kidneys, with the fat on them near the loins, and the lobe of the liver, which he shall sever above the kidneys.

5All this Aaron's sons shall then burn on the altar with the holocaust, on the wood over the fire, as a sweet-smelling oblation to the LORD.

6"If the peace offering he presents to the LORD is from the flock, he may offer either a male or a female animal, but it must be without blemish.

7If he presents a lamb as his offering, he shall bring it before the LORD,

8and after laying his hand on the head of his offering, he shall slaughter it before the meeting tent; but Aaron's sons shall splash its blood on the sides of the altar.

9As an oblation to the LORD he shall present the fat of the peace offering: the whole fatty tail, which he must sever close to the spine, the fatty membrane over the inner organs, and all the fat that adheres to them,

10as well as the two kidneys, with the fat on them near the loins, and the lobe of the liver, which he must sever above the kidneys.

11All this the priest shall burn on the altar as the food of the LORD'S oblation.

12"If he presents a goat, he shall bring it before the LORD,

13and after laying his hand on its head, he shall slaughter it before the meeting tent; but Aaron's sons shall splash its blood on the sides of the altar.

14From it he shall offer as an oblation to the LORD the fatty membrane over the inner organs, and all the fat that adheres to them,

15as well as the two kidneys, with the fat on them near the loins, and the lobe of the liver, which he must sever above the kidneys.

16All this the priest shall burn on the altar as the food of the sweet-smelling oblation. All the fat belongs to the LORD.

17This shall be a perpetual ordinance for your descendants wherever they may dwell. You shall not partake of any fat or any blood."

4The LORD said to Moses,

2"Tell the Israelites: When a person inadvertently commits a sin against some command of the LORD by doing one of the forbidden things,

3if it is the anointed priest who thus sins and thereby makes the people also become guilty, he shall present to the LORD a young, unblemished bull as a sin offering for the sin he committed.

4Bringing the bullock to the entrance of the meeting tent, before the LORD, he shall lay his hand on its head and slaughter it before the LORD.

5The anointed priest shall then take some of the bullock's blood and bring it into the meeting tent,

6where, dipping his finger in the blood, he shall sprinkle it seven times before the LORD, toward the veil of the sanctuary.

7The priest shall also put some of the blood on the horns of the altar of fragrant incense which is before the LORD in the meeting tent. The rest of the bullock's blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar of holocausts which is at the entrance of the meeting tent.

8From the sin-offering bullock he shall remove all the fat: the fatty membrane over the inner organs, and all the fat that adheres to them,

9as well as the two kidneys, with the fat on them near the loins, and the lobe of the liver, which he must sever above the kidneys.

10This is the same as is removed from the ox of the peace offering; and the priest shall burn it on the altar of holocausts.

11The hide of the bullock and all its flesh, with its head, legs, inner organs and offal,

12in short, the whole bullock, shall be brought outside the camp to a clean place where the ashes are deposited and there be burned up in a wood fire. At the place of the ash heap, there it must be burned.

13"If the whole community of Israel inadvertently and without even being aware of it does something that the LORD has forbidden and thus makes itself guilty,

14should it later on become known that the sin was committed, the community shall present a young bull as a sin offering. They shall bring it before the meeting tent,

15and here, before the LORD, the elders of the community shall lay their hands on the bullock's head. When the bullock has been slaughtered before the LORD,

16the anointed priest shall bring some of its blood into the meeting tent,

17and dipping his finger in the blood, he shall sprinkle it seven times before the LORD, toward the veil.

18He shall also put some of the blood on the horns of the altar of fragrant incense which is before the LORD in the meeting tent. The rest of the blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar of holocausts which is at the entrance of the meeting tent.

19All of its fat he shall take from it and burn on the altar,

20doing with this bullock just as he did with the other sin-offering bullock. Thus the priest shall make atonement for them, and they will be forgiven.

21This bullock must also be brought outside the camp and burned, just as has been prescribed for the other one. This is the sin offering for the community.

22"Should a prince commit a sin inadvertently by doing one of the things which are forbidden by some commandment of the LORD, his God, and thus become guilty,

23if later on he learns of the sin he committed, he shall bring as his offering an unblemished male goat.

24Having laid his hands on its head, he shall slaughter the goat as a sin offering before the LORD, in the place where the holocausts are slaughtered.

25The priest shall then take some of the blood of the sin offering on his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of holocausts. The rest of the blood he shall pour out at the base of this altar.

26All of the fat he shall burn on the altar like the fat of the peace offering. Thus the priest shall make atonement for the prince's sin, and it will be forgiven.

27"If a private person commits a sin inadvertently by doing one of the things which are forbidden by the commandments of the LORD, and thus becomes guilty,

28should he later on learn of the sin he committed, he shall bring an unblemished she-goat as the offering for his sin.

29Having laid his hand on the head of the sin offering, he shall slaughter it at the place of the holocausts.